TransAnatolie Welcomes You  to TurkeyExplore Turkey via TransAnatolie Tour




En  Fr  De  Nl  Be  Tr

Chronology ] Catalhoyuk ] Sumer & Akkad ] Isin Larsa & Babylon ] Trojans ] Hattis ] Hittites ] Assyria ] Mitanni ] Carians ] Phrygia ] Urartu ] Lydia ] Medes ] Lycians ] [ Persians ] Hellens ] Byzantine ] Ancient Technology ] Silk Road ]





Teispes 675-640
Cyrus I 640-600
Cambyses I 600-559
Cyrus (Kurush) II, the Great 559-530
overthrows Medes, 550;
conquers Lydia, 547;
conquers Babylon, 539
Cambyses (Kambujiya) II 530-522
conquers Egypt, 525;
of Egypt
Darius (Darayavahush) I 522-486
invades Greece, defeated at the
battle of Marathon, 490
Xerxes (Xshayarsha) I 486-465
invades Greece, defeated at the battles
of Salamis and Platea, 480, 479
Artaxerxes (Artaxshassa) I
Xerxes II 424-423
Darius II 423-404
Egypt breaks away, 404
Artaxerxes II Mnemon 404-359
Artaxerxes III Ochus 359-338
reconquers Egypt, 343;
Arses (Arsha) 338-336
Darius III Codomannus 336-330
Macedonian Conquest

Cyrus the Great overthrew, in turn, the Medes, Lydians, and Babylonians, suddenly creating an empire far larger than even the Assyrian. Cyrus was better able, through more benign policies, to reconcile his subjects to Persian rule; and the longevity of his empire was one result. The Persian king, like the Assyrian, was also "king of kings," xshayathiya xshayathiyânâm (shâhanshâh in modern Persian) -- "great king," megas basileus, as known by the Greeks. Alexander the Great, after he ultimately overthrew the Persians, deliberately assumed the universal pretensions of the Achaemenid kings, but the division of his empire after his early death eliminates any factual universality until the Roman Empire.

Peridiccas I 7th Cent.
Aeropus I  
Alcetas I d.500
Amyntas I 500-498
Alexander I
Philip I d.c.430
Alcetas II d.c.411
Perdiccas II 454-413
Orest 399-c.397
Aeropus II c.397-c.392
Amyntas II c.392-c.390
Amyntas III c.390-370
Alexander II 370-368
Perdiccas III 368-360
Amyntas IV 360-359
Philip II 359-336
Conquest of Greece
at Chaeronea, 338
Alexander III
the Great


Macedonia quietly grew into a power that, under Philip II, would dominate Greece and, in short order, turn against Persia. It is a little odd to think of all these monarchs, so important in Greek history, as not actually being Greek; but, like neighboring Epirus, they are not. A revealing point in this respect is the epithet "Philhellene" of Alexander I. No Greek needs to be called "loving the Greeks." Exactly what the linguistic affinities of the Macedonians were is unclear. That it could be to the later Illyrians, or Thracians, or even modern Albanians, is always possible, but the matter is largely speculative. Whatever it was, the Philhellenism of the Kings soon created a layer of Greek culture that made them seem proper Greeks to everyone except, of course, the actual Greeks. The Macedonian monarchy itself also struck the Greeks as rather un-Greek. When Philip added his own statue to a procession of the Twelve Olympians, his assassination shortly thereafter suggested that the gods had been offended. If so, his son, Alexander III, was untroubled, initiating Hellenistic practice by assuming divine attributes -- something else to scandalize the Greeks, if by then anyone actually cared. The modern Macedonians are actually Slavs, but nearly everything about both the ancient and modern peoples is disputed by them and by Modern Greeks.

Egypt, which was added to the Persian empire by Cyrus's son Cambyses, frequently revolted against the Persians. The Persian invasion of Greece in 490 was in part to be punishment of the Greeks for helping the Egyptians in these revolts. Since the invasion of 480 was then in revenge for the failure of the invasion of 490, we could say that the consequences of Greek interference in Egypt were persistent. But the Egyptians and the Greeks kept at it, and eventually...








Home ] Up ]

Mail to  info[at] with questions or comments about this web site.
Copyright © 1997 TransAnatolie. All rights reserved.
Last modified: 2016-08-27
Explore the Worlds of Ancient Anatolia and Modern Turkey by TransAnatolie Tour: Ancient Anatolia Explorer, Asia Minor Explorer, Turkey Explorer; Cultural Tour Operator, Biblical Tour Operator, Turkish Destinations, Cultural Tours to Turkey, Biblical Tours to Turkey, Health and Cultural Tours to Turkey, Thermal, Thalasso Holidays in Turkey,  Archaeological Tours to Turkey, Historical Tours to Turkey, Cultural Heritage Tours to Turkey, Cultural Tours to Turkey, Hobby Eco and Nature Tours Holidays to Turkey,  Beach and Plateau Holidays in Tuirkey, Anatolian Civilizations, Ancient Cultural Museums in Turkey, Top Turkish Museums, Museums in Turkey, Anatolian Civilizations Museum, Istanbul Archeological Museum, Ephesus Museum, Mevlana Museum, Topkapi Museum, Museum of Topkapi Palace, Turkish Cities, Turkish Destinations, Ancient Cities in Turkey, Ancient Anatolian Cities, Turkey in Brief, Turkish Culture, Turks, Turkish Language, Turkish Philosophers....Circuits culturels en Turquie, Excurcions en Turquie, Vacances en Turquie, Circuits de Culture en Turquie, Circuits de Croyance en Turquie, Turquie, Villes Antiques en Turquie, Musees en Turquie, Empires Turcs, Revolution de Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, Turquie d'Ataturk, Culturele Tours in Turkije, Rondreizen in Turkije, Reizen naar Turkije, Culturele Rondreizen naar Turkije, Vakanties in Turkije, Groepsreizen naar Turkije, Turkije, Turkse  Geschiedenis, Geschiedenis van Turkije, Oude Steden in Turkije, Oude Beschavingen, Oude Anatolische Beschavingen, Turkse Steden, Turkse Musea, Musea in Turkije, Turkse Steden, Overzicht van Turkije, Turkije in het Kort, Turks, Turkse Taal, Turkse Gescheidenis, Osmaanse Rijk, Ottamaanse Rijk, Gezondheid Tours Vakanties in Turkije, Geloof Tours in Turkije, Culturele Tour Operator, Turkije Specialist 
The Association of Turkish Travel Agencies