En  Fr  Nl  De  Tr  

TransAnatolie Welcomes You  to Turkey





TransAnatolie Tours

En  Fr  Nl  De  Tr  







Home ] Up ] Tours ] Turkey-Türkiye ] Prehistory Anatolia ] Anatolia ] Cities ] Museums ] About ] Site Map ] Search ]


In Depth ] [ Kings ] S-People ]





Hittites & Kings of the Hittites (Ancient Anatolian Civilization)





Old Kingdom
Tudhaliya(s)? 1740-1710
Pusarruma(s)? 1710-1680
Labarna(s) I? 1680-1650 c.1680-1650?
Labarna(s) II?/
Hattusilis I
1650-1620 1650-1620
Mursili(s) I 1620-1590 1620-1590
Sack of Babylon, c.1595
Hantili(s) I 1590-1560 1590-1560
Zidanta(s) I 1560-1550 1560-1550
Ammuna(s) 1550-1530 1550-1530
Huzziya(s) I 1530-1525 1530-1525
Telipinu(s) 1525-1500 1525-1500
Alluwamna(s) 1500-1490 1500-
Hantili(s) II 1490-1480
Zidanta(s) II 1480-1470
Huzziya(s) II 1470-1460


The first column of dates at left is from O.R. Gurney, The Hittites [Penguin Books, 1952, 1962, p.216]. The second column of dates is from Georges Roux, Ancient Iraq [Penguin Books, 1964, 1992, pp.507-9] and/or Amélie Kuhrt, The Ancient Near East, c.3000-330 BC [Routledge, 1995, 2000, p.230]. In the table for the "Empire" period below, Gurney, Roux, and Kuhrt have been separated into three columns, with Kuhrt's column giving alternative dates in itself. The uncertainties of Hittite dating are still so great that Kuhrt also gives the Kings in a different sequence, as can be seen from the dates.

In the earlier chronologies, there is the inconvenience that the events of the reign of Ramesses II do not match up with the corresponding Hittite dates for these events. Thus, Roux gives 1300 as the date for the battle of Qadesh, while none of the Egyptian references has Ramesses coming to the throne before 1290. Kuhrt's latest dates allow a match for the Battle of Qadesh given with Egyptian chronology, 1275.

The earlier histories usually give the names of the Hittite Kings with a final "s." Kuhrt drops this, without discussion. Presumably the "s" is not actually in the texts. I would imagine that when it was discovered that Hittite was an Indo-European language, it may have become customary to assume the same nominative ending that is found from Latin to Greek to Sanskrit, i.e. "s." Apparently, the custom has lapsed.

Although the Kingdom of the Hittites in central Anatolia was wiped out by the obscure migrations of the 12th century, small Hittite (nor "Neo-Hittite") states continued in Southern Turkey, to which references to the Hittites in the Bible refer. These small states are still commemorated in the name "Hatay" containing Antioch.

The discovery of the Hittite Kingdom and its language was an archaeological sensation at a time when the only Hittites anyone was aware of were those of the small states in the Bible. The decipherment of the Hittite language created another sensation, when it turned out to be an Indo-European language. Even better, it was an evidently archaic dialect which contained sounds in positions that comparative theory had predicted should have been "pharyngeal" sounds (perhaps like Arabic 'ayn) in Proto-Indo-European, but which had not hitherto been found in attested languages.



  Gurney Roux Kuhrt
Tudhaliya(s) I 1460-1440 1450-1420 1430/1420-
Arnuwanda(s) I 1440-1420 1420-1400 1390/1370-
Tudhaliya(s) II   1400/1390-
Hattusili(s) II 1420-1400   1410/1400-
Tudhaliya(s) III 1400-1380 1395-1380 1380/1355-
Suppiluliuma(s) I 1380-1340 c.1380-1336 1370/1344-
Defeat of Mitanni, c.1370;
reduction of Syria, supplication
from widowed Egyptian Queen
to marry a Hittite Prince, c.1340
Mattiwaza ?
Arnuwanda(s) II 1340-1339   1330/1322-
Mursili(s) II 1339-1306 1335-1310 1330/1321-
Muwatilli(s) 1306-1282 1309-1287 1295-
Battle of Qadesh, 1300 or 1286/1275
Mursilis III
1282-1275   1282/1271-
Hattusili(s) III 1275-1250 1286-1265 1275/1264-
Egyptian-Hittite Treaty, 1286 or 1269/1258
Tudhaliya(s) IV 1250-1220 1265-1235 1245/1239-
Arnuwanda(s) III 1220-1190 1235-1215 1215/1209-
Suppiluliuma(s) II 1190-? 1215-? 1210/1205-?
Phrygians & Gasgas destroy
Hittites, c.1200


Ironically, it was the Hittites who then brought to an end the Kingdom of the Mitanni, which may have been ruled by a noble elite with Indo-Aryan affinities, speaking or influenced by another Indo-European language from the same family as Persian and Sanskrit, and who worshiped gods obviously identical to those of the Vedas. The Indo-Aryan influence on Mitanni had clearly come in across Iran, but where the Hittites originally came from, if not autochthonous, is as mysterious as ever.  



Kelley L. Ross, Ph.D.  

TransAnatolie Tour
A - Group License N°4938 - The Turkish Ministry of Culture and Tourism








Home ] Up ] Tours ] Turkey-Türkiye ] Prehistory Anatolia ] Anatolia ] Cities ] Museums ] About ] Site Map ] Search ]

In Depth ] [ Kings ] S-People ]


Mail to  info[at]transanatolie.com with questions or comments about this web site.
Copyright © 1997 TransAnatolie. All rights reserved.
Last modified: 2023-10-28


Explore the Worlds of Ancient Anatolia and Modern Turkey by TransAnatolie Tour: Ancient Anatolia Explorer, Asia Minor Explorer, Turkey Explorer; Cultural Tour Operator, Biblical Tour Operator, Turkish Destinations, Cultural Tours to Turkey, Biblical Tours to Turkey, Health and Cultural Tours to Turkey, Thermal, Thalasso Holidays in Turkey,  Archaeological Tours to Turkey, Historical Tours to Turkey, Cultural Heritage Tours to Turkey, Cultural Tours to Turkey, Hobby Eco and Nature Tours Holidays to Turkey,  Beach and Plateau Holidays in Tuirkey, Anatolian Civilizations, Ancient Cultural Museums in Turkey, Top Turkish Museums, Museums in Turkey, Anatolian Civilizations Museum, Istanbul Archeological Museum, Ephesus Museum, Mevlana Museum, Topkapi Museum, Museum of Topkapi Palace, Turkish Cities, Turkish Destinations, Ancient Cities in Turkey, Ancient Anatolian Cities, Turkey in Brief, Turkish Culture, Turks, Turkish Language, Turkish Philosophers....Circuits culturels en Turquie, Excurcions en Turquie, Vacances en Turquie, Circuits de Culture en Turquie, Circuits de Croyance en Turquie, Turquie, Villes Antiques en Turquie, Musees en Turquie, Empires Turcs, Revolution de Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, Turquie d'Ataturk, Culturele Tours in Turkije, Rondreizen in Turkije, Reizen naar Turkije, Culturele Rondreizen naar Turkije, Vakanties in Turkije, Groepsreizen naar Turkije, Turkije, Turkse  Geschiedenis, Geschiedenis van Turkije, Oude Steden in Turkije, Oude Beschavingen, Oude Anatolische Beschavingen, Turkse Steden, Turkse Musea, Musea in Turkije, Turkse Steden, Overzicht van Turkije, Turkije in het Kort, Turks, Turkse Taal, Turkse Gescheidenis, Osmaanse Rijk, Ottamaanse Rijk, Gezondheid Tours Vakanties in Turkije, Geloof Tours in Turkije, Culturele Tour Operator, Turkije Specialist