Ancient people of Asia Minor and
Syria who flourished from 1600 to 1200 B.C. The Hittites, a people
of Indo-European connection, were supposed to have entered
Cappadocia around 1800 B.C. The Hittite empire, with its capital at
Bogazköy (also called as Hattusas), was the chief power and cultural
force in Western Asia from 1400 to 1200 B.C. It was a loose
confederation that broke up under the invasions (c.1200 B.C.) of the
Thracians, Phrygians, and Assyrians. The Neo-Hittite kingdom
(c.1050-c.700 B.C.) that followed was conquered by the Assyrians.
The Hittites were one of the first peoples to smelt iron
successfully. They spoke an Indo-European language.
Because the Hittites were newcomers to Anatolia they were basically
forced to settle where they did because they couldn't find a better
place. The Hittite population would largely have consisted of
peasants. There was a recognized class of craftsmen especially
potters, cobblers, carpenters and smiths, and though metal
principally worked was bronze, the smelting of iron was already
understood and a high value was set on this metal. The medium of
exchange was silver, of which the Taurus Mountains contained an
abundant supply; however, it is not known how this potential source
of wealth was controlled by the Hittite kings. Traces of metallurgy
are found in Hattusas. Textual and material ranging from goldsmiths
to shoemakers and to pottery. The Hittite economy was based on
agriculture. The main crops were emmer wheat and barley. It took at
least 22,000 hectares of arable land to meet the annual needs of
Hattusas. Honey was a significant item in the diet. Domestic
livestock consisted of cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, and perhaps
water-buffalo. Donkeys were used as pack animals. They used also
dogs as their best friends. Hittites used cuneiform script on their
inscriptions. Also they used the hieroglyph form on some
inscription, intended for ordinary people to understand the contents
The king was supreme ruler, military commander, judicial authority
and high priest. Surrounding him was a large class of nobles and
dignitaries who, especially in the earlier centuries, possessed
considerable power and were largely related to the king by blood.
Throughout, the government of the most important cities and
provinces was assigned by the king to members of his own family,
each bounded to him by ties of homage and fealty. In later
centuries, the same principle was extended to native vassal who
became members of the royal family by marriage. The oath of fealty
was a personal matter and so it was necessary, on the death of a
kind, for all vassal treaties to be renewed by his successor. This
feudal principle was in fact the basis of Hittite society as a
whole. The nobles possessed large manors, each with its own peasants
and artisans, who held their tenements on condition of payment of
rent in kind or performance of appropriate services. A peasant could
leave his holdings to his son; a craftsman could sell it, with the
obligation passing to the buyer; but the lord had the right to
choose or approve the new feudatory and invest him with the
A notable characteristic of the Hittite state is the prominent part
played by women, especially the queen. Pudupepa, wife of Hattusilis
III, is regularly associated with her husband in treaties an
documents of the state and she even carried on correspondence with
foreign kings and queens in her own right. Both she and the last
queen of Suppiluliumas I remained in office until their husbands'
death; thus it is inferred that the Hilife. There is some reason to
believe that a matrilineal system once prevailed in Anatolia and the
independent position of the Hittite queen could be a result of this.
The Hittite family was of the normal patriarchal type: the father
gave his daughter aqua in marriage; the bridegroom paid him the
bride-price and thereafter took the bride and possessed her; if she
was taken in adultery he had the right to decide her fate.
The collection of roughly 200 Hittite laws, complied in a single
work in two tablets, contain laws of different periods showing a
constant development towards milder and more humane punishment. The
most primitive clause prescribes drawing and quartering for an
agricultural offense. Other capital crimes are rape, or in case of a
slave, disobedience and sorcery.
Slavery was severe. The master had the power of life and death. In
most cases, it is stated that a animal was to be substituted for the
man and a compensation of some sorts was paid. The spirit of Hittite
law was more humane then that of the Babylonian or Assyrian legal
The Hittite weakness was that they never had a reliable native
population. It was solved by the settlements of deportees, who
retained royal control even when put beside native communities.
They were influenced by Hatti civilization to a great extend in
religion, mythology, art and culture. Although Hittites were the
rulers of the country, their kings adopted Hatti names.
Although the Hittite Empire vanished thousands of years ago, it has
by no means been forgotten, and its capital Hattusha has been
declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Moreover, an enlarged copy
of a cuneiform tablet found here hangs in the United Nations
building in New York. This tablet is a peace treaty concluded after
the Battle of Kadesh between the Hittite king Hattusili III and the
Egyptian pharaoh Ramses II about 3260 years ago, demonstrating to
modern statesmen that international treaties are a tradition going
back to the earliest civilizations.
The Hittite Kings
King Royal Relationship Middle Chronology
Pithana early 18th c.
Anitta son of Pithana mid 18th c.
Labarna first known Hittite king 1680-1650
Hattusili I nephew/adopted son of Labarna 1650-1620
Mursili I grandson/adopted son of Hattusili I 1620-1590
Hantili assassin and brother-in-law of Mursili I 1590-1560
Zidanta I son-in-law of Hantili 1560-1550
Ammuna son of Hantili 1550-1530
Huzziya I son of Ammuna? 1530-1525
Telipinu son of Zidanta I?/brother-in-law of Ammuna 1525-1500
Alluwamna son-in-law of Huzziya I
Hantili II son of Alluwamna 1500-1450
Zidanta II ?
Huzziya II ?
Muwatalli I ?
Tudhaliya II son of Huzziya II? 1450-1420
Arnuwanda I son-in-law of Tudhaliya II 1420-1400
Tudhaliya III son of Arnuwanda I 1400-1380
Tudhaliya son of Tudhaliya III 1380?
Hattusili II ? ?
Suppiluliuma I son of Tudhaliya III or Hattusili II 1380-1340
Arnuwanda II son of Suppiluliuma I 1340-1339
Mursili II son of Suppiluliuma I 1339-1306
Muwatalli II son of Mursili II 1306-1282
Mursili III son of Muwatalli II 1282-1275
Hattusili III son of Mursili II 1275-1250
Tudhaliya IV son of Hattusili III 1250-1220
Karunta son of Muwatalli/cousin of Tudhaliya IV ?
Arnuwanda III son of Tudhaliya IV 1220-1215
Suppiluliuma II son of Tudhaliya IV 1215-1200
The religion of the Hittite people was concerned primarily with
ensuring the favor of the local deity, whose in most cases was that
of a fertility god controlling the weather. In most shrines he had a
family and wife, and the note of a mother-goddess is another
indication suggesting an early matrilineal society. With the
unification of the country under the kings of Hattush, a centralized
religion developed in which the numerous local deities were combined
into a complicated pantheon. It became the kings duty to tour the
country and officiate at the most important festivals, chiefly
during the winter months. A king who allowed his military duties to
override that of the gods, which would lead to dire consequences for
the Hittite state. Mursilis II is particularly notable for his duty
to religion. There exist several prayer at which he addresses the
gods at a time when the nation was afflicted with serious plague or
epidemic. In these prayers, he pleas that he himself has given no
cause for divine anger and though his father has, he begs for the
gods to relent and not to punish the innocent with the guilty.
The names of the deities reflect the ethnic diversity of the Hittite
kingdom. The oldest of the gods was that of the Hattia, a god who
lead the king to victory in battle. Later, especially in 13th
century BC under the influence of Queen Puduhepa, Hurrian deities
entered the pantheon and the leading Hurrian pair, Teshub and Hebat,
were identified with their Hittite counterparts, the goddess taking
a subordinate place.
The religion of the Hittites was an amalgam (mixture). It
incorporated popular elements of indigenous to central Anatolia with
some external influences largely of Hurrian origin. These external
influences appealed particularly to the royal court and is most
clearly evident in the rock-cut shrine of Yazilikaya. Water was
never far from the peoples thoughts, especially in the heat of the
summer, and shrines or relieves at Hattusas is most likely dedicated
to the weather god Teshub and thus was the home of his cult.
About 1200 meters to the northeast of the main site of Hattusas is
the famous rock shrine of Yazilikaya. There is perhaps a road or at
least a Processional Way from the city to Yazilikaya. The relieves
of Yazilikaya show gods and goddess wearing the horned headdress
which was an originally Mesopotamian characteristic emblem of
divinity. The most imposing is worn by the weather god Teshub with
goddess wearing their own distinctive crowns. The tradition of
depicting divinities standing on an animal is of Hurrian origin. An
interpretation of Yazilikaya naturally depends on the understanding
the shrines purpose, which is continually debated.
Cremation was widespread in central Anatolia. From textual sources
it is known to be the funerary custom of the Hittite kings. The
ordinary people of Hattusas, however, were either buried or
cremated. Funerary offerings were rather smaller from a funeral
The Hittites had an abundant number of local cult deities and sets
of local pantheons. As the government became more centralized,
particularly during the imperial period around 1400 - 1200 B.C.,
there were efforts to equate many of these local deities and form a
state pantheon. Such a pantheon was headed by the
Weather-god/Storm-god, who also represented the mountains, and his
consort - usually the earth goddess, who was also attached to the
waters of rivers and the sea. The Hittites themselves write of 'the
thousand gods of Hatti', and more than eight-hundred such names have
been discovered. The associated myths have both Hittite and Hurrian
content, with the origin of many suspected to be Hurrian. The
Kumarbis-Ullukummis myth is chief among the Hurrian tales and the
Illuyankas stories and missing god myths of Telipinus and the
missing Storm-god are thought to be more Hattic. There also exist
fragments of a Hittite version of the Gilgamesh epic and many
Akkadian deities were worshiped outright. Doubtless the Hatti left
their mark in Hittite religion as well.
Hittite and Hurrian Deities
He was the king in heaven in olden days and Anus was the first among
the gods. Anus served as his cupbearer for 9 years before defeating
him and dispatching him to under the earth.
Anu (Akkadian in origin)
While Alalus was king in heaven, Anus was more powerful. He served
as Alalus' cup bearer for 9 years and then defeated him, dispatching
him to under the earth. He took his seat on the throne and had
Kumarbis as his cupbearer. Likewise, after nine years Kumarbis
rebelled, chased Anus - who fled in the sky like a bird, and bit off
and swallowed his phallus. In this act Anus had some revenge by
impregnating Kumarbis with the Storm-god, the Aranzahus (Tigris)
river, and Tasmisus. He then hid himself in heaven. He advised the
Storm-god on the places where he might exit Kumarbis. After the
Storm-god's birth, they plotted to destroy Kumarbis and, with his
other children, apparently succeeded.
Kumarbi - 'the father of all gods' according
to the Hurrian
He is sometimes equated with Enlil and Dagan. His city is Urkis. He
thinks wise thoughts and carries a staff. He served as Anus's
cup-bearer for 9 years and then rebelled, chased Anus, and bit off
and swallowed his phallus, thereby becoming impregnated with the
Storm-god, the Aranzahus (Tigris) river, and Tasmisus. With that
news, he spat out Aranzahus and Tasmisus of on Mount Kanzuras. The
Storm-god begins to exit through Kumarbis's 'tarnassus', causing him
to moan in pain. He asks Ayas to give him his son to devour, which
he does. Ayas has 'poor' magic worked on him and his 'tarnassus' is
secured, so the Storm-god exits through his 'good place' instead. He
is then presumably defeated by the Storm-god, Anus, and his
offspring. During a plot to overthrow the Storm-god, he lay with a
Rock as if it were a woman. He instructs Imbaluris, his messenger to
send a message to the Sea, that Kumarbis should remain father of the
gods. The Sea hosts a feast for him and later Kumarbis' Rock gives
birth to Ullikummis. Kumarbis announces that his son will defeat the
Storm-god, his city Kummiya, his brother Tasmisus and the gods from
the sky. He charges Imbaluris to seek out the Irsirra deities to
hide Ullikummis from the Sun-god, the Storm-god, and Ishtar.
He is Kumarbis' messenger. He is sent to warn the Sea that Kumarbis'
must remain the father of the gods.
He is Kumarbis' right arm.
Hannahanna (Nintu, Mah) - The mother of all
She is associated with Gulses. After Telepinu disappears, the
Storm-god complains to her. She sends him to search himself and when
he gives up, she dispatches a bee, charging it to purify the god by
stinging his hands and feat and wiping his eyes and feet with wax.
She recommends to the Storm-god that he pay the Sea-god the
bride-price for the Sea-god's daughter on her wedding to Telipinu.
Apparently she also disappears in a fit of anger and while she is
gone, cattle and sheep are stifled and mothers, both human and
animal take no account of their children. After her anger is
banished to the Dark Earth, she returns rejoicing. Another means of
banishing her anger is through burning brushwood and allowing the
vapor to enter her body. After Inara consulted with her, she gave
her a man and land. Soon after, Inara is missing and when Hannahanna
is informed thereof by the Storm-god's bee, she apparently begins a
search with the help of her Female attendant a. She appears to
consult with the Sun-god and the War-god, but much of the text is
Similar to Atlas, this giant carries the world on his shoulders. The
olden gods built the earth and heaven upon him though he did not
notice, even when those two were separated with a cleaver. On the
direction of Kumarbis' messenger Imbaluris, the Issira deities place
Ullikummis on his right shoulder where the child grows. Ea
interviews him, in search of Ullikummis and Upelluri admits to a
small pain on his shoulder, although he can't identify which god is
Storm/Weather-god (Hurrian's Teshub, Taru,
Luwian's Tarhun - 'The Conqueror'), 'The king of Kummiya', 'King of
Heaven, Lord of the land of Hatti'
He is chief among the gods and his symbol is the bull. As Teshub he
has been pictured as a bearded man astride two mountains and bearing
a club. He is a god of battle and victory, especially when the
battle is with a foreign power. As Taru, he is the consort of
Wurusemu. He was the child of Anus and Kumarbis - conceived along
with Tasmisus and the Aranzahus (Tigris) river when Kumarbis bit off
and swallowed Anus' phallus. He is, however, considered Ea's son in
the myth of Ullikummis. He is informed by Anus of the possible exits
from Kumarbis, and tries to exit through Kumarbis's 'tarnassas',
causing him great pain. With the 'tarnassas' blocked, he exits
through Kumarbis' 'good place'. He plots with Anus, Tasmisus, and
Aranzhus to destroy Kumarbis, and apparently succeeds seizing
kingship in heaven. He sent rain after the fallen Moon-god/Kashku
when he fell from heaven.
Alerted to the imminent arrival of the Sun-god, who in some myths is
his son, he has Tasmisus prepare a meal for their guest and listens
to his report about the sudden appearance of the giant Ullikummis.
He and Tasmisus then leave the kuntarra and are led to Mount Hazzi
by his sister, Ishtar, where they behold the monstrous creature. He
looks upon Kumarbis' son with fear and Ishtar chides him. Later,
emboldened, he has Tasmisus prepare his bulls and wagon for battle,
and has him call out the thunderstorms, lightning and rains. Their
first battle resulted in his incomplete defeat. He dispatches
Tasmisus to his wife, Hebat, to tell her that he must remain in a
'lowly place' for a term. When Tasmisus returns, he encourages the
Storm-god to seek Ea in the city Abzu/Apsu and ask for the 'tablets
with the words of fate' (Tablets of Destiny? 'me'?). After Ea
cleaves off Ullukummis' feet, he spurs Tasmisus and the Storm-god on
to battle the crippled giant. Despite the diorite man's boasting,
the Storm-god presumably defeats him.
He fought with the Dragon Illuyankas in Kiskilussa and was defeated.
He called the gods for aid, asking that Inaras prepare a
celebration. She does so and when the dragon and his children have
gorged themselves on her feast, the mortal Hupasiyas binds him with
a rope. Then the Storm-god, accompanied by the gods, sets upon them
and destroys them.
In another version of that myth, he looses his eyes and heart to
Illuyankas after his first battle. He then marries a poor mortal
woman and marries their son to Illuyankas daughter. He has the son
ask for his eyes and heart. With their return, he attacks the dragon
again. When his son sides with Illuyankas, the Storm-god kills them
both. When his son, Telepinus, is missing he despairs and complains
to the Sun-god and then to Hannahannas, who tells him to search for
him himself. After searching Telepinus' city he gives up.
In other versions of this myth, it is the Storm-god who is missing.
One is almost exactly the same, and in another, he journeys to the
Dark Earth in his anger, and is returned with the help of his mother
- here Wuruntemu/Ereshkigal/the Sun-goddess of Arinna. He sends
Telipinu to recover the Sun-god who had been kidnapped by the
Sea-god. The Sea-god is so intimidated that he gives Telipinu his
daughter in marriage but demands a bride-price from the Storm-god.
After consulting with Hannahanna, he pays the price of a thousand
sheep and a thousand cattle. He notices his daughter, Inara, is
missing and sends a bee to Hannahanna to have her search for her.
This is one of the bulls sacred to the Storm-god. In preparation for
battle, the Storm-god has Tasmisus anoint his horns with oil and
drive him up Mount Imgarra with Tella and the battle wagon.
This is another bull sacred to the Storm-god. In preparation for
battle, the Storm-god has Tasmisus plate his tail with gold and
drive him up Mount Imgarra with Seris and the battle wagon.
Aranzahas - The Tigris river deified
A child of Anus and Kumarbis, he was the brother of the Storm-god
and Tasmisus, spat out of Kumarbis' mouth onto Mount Kanzuras. Later
he colludes with Anus and the Storm-god to destroy Kumarbis.
A child of Anus and Kumarbis, he is conceived along with the
Storm-god and Aranzahus. The brother of the Storm-god and Aranzahus,
he was spat out of Kumarbis upon Mount Kanzuras. Later he colludes
with Anus and the Storm-god to destroy Kumarbis. He serves as the
Storm-god's attendant. He spies the Sun-god approaching and informs
the Storm-god that this visit bodes ill. At the Storm-god's command
he has a meal set up for their visitor. After the Sun-god's tale, he
and the Storm-god depart and are met by Ishtar, who takes them to
Mt. Hazzi near Ugarit, where they can see Ullikummis. The Storm-god
has him take his bulls up Mt. Imgarra and prepare them for battle.
He is also ordered to bring forth the storms, rains, winds, and
lightning. After their defeat, he is dispatched by the Storm-god to
Hebat, to tell her that he must remain in a 'lowly place' for a
term. He returns and encourages the Storm-god to seek Ea in the city
Abzu/Apsu and ask for the 'tablets with the words of fate'. After Ea
cleaves off Ullukummis' feet, he spurs Tasmisus and the Storm-god on
to battle the crippled giant.
He is a warrior god and probably the brother of the Storm-god.
Hebat (Hurrian name) (Hepit, Hepatu)
The matronly wife of the Storm-god. She is sometimes depicted
standing on her sacred animal, the lion. After the Storm-god and
Astabis' failed attacks on Ullikummis, the giant forced her out of
her temple, causing her to lose communication with the gods. She
frets that Ullikummis may have defeated her husband and expresses
her concern to her servant Takitis, charging him to convene the
assembly of the gods and bring back word of her husband. Presumably
she is brought word of his defeat. Tasmisus visits her in the high
watchtower, telling her that the Storm-god is consigned to a 'lowly
place' for a length of time. She is the mother of Sharruma.
Wurusemu, (Wuruntemu?), 'Sun Goddess of Arrina',
'mistress of the Hatti lands, the queen of heaven and earth',
'mistress of the kings and queens of Hatti, directing the government
of the King and Queen of Hatti'
This goddess is later assimilated with Hebat. She made the cedar
land. She is the primary goddess in Arrina, with Taru as her
consort. She is a goddess of battle and is associated with Hittite
military victory. She is the mother of the Storm-god of Nerik, and
thereby possibly associated with Ereshkigal. She aids in returning
him from the underworld.
Sharruma (Hurrian name), 'the calf of Teshub'
The son of Teshub and Hebat, this god is symbolized by a pair of
human legs, or a human head on a bull's body. He is later identified
with the Weather-god of Nerik and Zippalanda.
He is Hebat's servant. After Hebat was driven from her temple he is
told of her concern for her husband and charged with convening the
assembly of the gods and returning with word of her husband's fate.
She is the daughter of the Storm-god and the Sun-goddess of Arinna.
She has influence with her parents.
She is the granddaughter of the Storm-god and the Sun-goddess of
Telepinu(s) 'the noble god'
An agricultural god, he is the favorite and firstborn son of the
Storm-god. He 'harrows and plows. He irrigates the fields and makes
the crops grow. He flies into a rage and storms off, losing himself
in the steppe and becoming overcome with fatigue. With his
departure, fertility of the land, crops and herds disappears and
famine besets man and god. Hannahannas's bee finds him, stings his
hands and feet, and wipes his eyes and feet with wax, purifying him.
This further infuriates him, and he wrecks further havoc with the
rivers and by shattering houses and windows. Eventually, the evil
and malice is removed through magic by Kamrusepas, but not before
Telepinus thunders with lightning. Telepinus returns home, restoring
fertility and tending to the life and vitality of the royal family.
His prosperity and fertility is symbolized by a pole suspending the
fleece of a sheep. In other versions of this myth, the Storm-god or
the Sun-god and several other gods are missing instead. He is asked
by his father to recover the Sun-god from the Sea-god, and so
intimidates the Sea-god that he is given his daughter as a bride.
Ullikummi(s), the diorite man
He is born of Kumarbis and the Rock. This god is made entirely of
diorite. He was born to be used as a weapon to defeat the Storm-godand
his allies. Kumarbis had him delivered to the Irsirra deities to
keep him hidden from the Storm-god, the Sun-god, and Ishtar. After
the Irsirra deities presented him to Ellil, they placed him on the
shoulder of Upelluri where he grows an acre in a month. After 15
days he grows enough so that he stands waist deep in the sea when
the Sun-god and he notice each other. Alerted by the Sun-god, the
Storm-god eventually prepares for battle atop Mount Imgarra, yet
their first battle results in an incomplete victory. He drives Hebat
from her temple, cutting off her communication with the other gods.
Astabis leads seventy gods on attack against him, attempting to draw
up the water from around him, perhaps in order to stop his growth.
They fall into the sea and he grows to be 9000 leagues tall and
around, shaking the heavens, the earth, pushing up the sky, and
towering over Kummiya. Ea locates him and cuts off his feet with the
copper knife that separated the heaven from the earth. Despite his
wounds he boasts to the Storm-god that he will take the kingship of
heaven. Presumably, he is none-the-less defeated.
Sun-god (of Heaven)
Probably an Akkadian import, this god is one of justice and is
sometimes the king of all gods. An ally of the Storm-god, he notices
the giant Ullikummis in the sea and visited the Storm-god, refusing
to eat until he reports his news. After he has done so, the
Storm-god proclaims that the food on the table shall become
pleasant, which it does, and so the Sun-god enjoys his meal and
returns to his route in heaven. When Telepinus disappears, bringing
a famine, he arranges a feast, but it is ineffective in assuaging
their hunger. At the Storm-god's complaint, he dispatches an eagle
to search for the god, but the bird is unsuccessful. After the bee
discovers Telepinus, he has man perform a ritual. In another version
of the missing god myth, he is one of the missing gods. He keeps
several sheep. At the end of the day, he travels through the
nether-world. He was kidnapped by the Sea-god and released when
Telipinu came for him. In a longer version of that story, the
Sea-god caught him in a net, possibly putting him into a Kukubu-vessel
when he fell. During his absence, Hahhimas (Frost) took hold.
He is the Sun-god's shepherd.
Moon-god (Hurrian Kashku)
He fell upon the 'killamar', the gate complex, from heaven and
disappeared. Storm-god/Taru rain-stormed after him, frightening him.
Hapantali went to him and uttered the words of a spell over him.
While known to bestow ill omens, he can be appeased by sheep
The Sea, the Waters
She is told by Imbaluris that 'Kumarbis must remain father of the
gods'. Struck with fear by this message, she makes ready here abode
and prepares to act as hostess for a feast for Kumarbis. This feast
may have served as a meeting of Mother-goddesses who delivered
Kumarbis' child by the Rock, Ullikummis.
He quarreled and kidnapped the Sun-god of Heaven. When Telipinu came
to recover the Sun-god, the Sea-god was so intimidated that he also
gave him his daughter. he later demanded a bride-price for her of
the Storm-god, and was eventually given a thousand cattle and a
thousand sheep. In another version, he caught the Sun-god in a net
as he fell, and may have sealed him in a Kukubu-vessel, allowing
Hahhimas (Frost to take hold of most of the other gods. He questions
the fire in its role in one of Kamrusepa's healing spells.
Daughter of the Storm-god and goddess of the wild animals of the
steppe. After the Storm-god's initial defeat by Illuyankas, she
follows his request to set up a feast. She recruits Hupasiayas of
Zigaratta, to aid in revenge on Illuyankas, by taking him as a
lover. She then sets about luring Illuyankas and his children to a
feast. After the dragon and his children gorge themselves on her
meal, Hupasiayas binds him with a rope. Then the Storm-god sets upon
them and defeats them. She then gives Hupasiayas a house on a cliff
to live in, yet warns him not to look out the window, lest he see
his wife and children. He disobeys her, and seeing his family begs
to be allowed to go home. Gurney speculates that he was killed for
his disobedience. She consults with Hannahanna, who promises to give
her land and a man. She then goes missing and is sought after by her
father and Hannahanna with her bee.
Illuyankas - the Dragon
He defeated the Storm-god in Kiskilussa. Later he was lured from his
lair with his children by a well dressed Inaras with a feast. After
they were too engorged to get into their lair again, the Storm-god,
accompanied by the other gods, killed him. In another version of the
myth, he defeated the Storm-god and stole his eyes and heart. Later,
his daughter married the son of the Storm-god. Acting on the
Storm-god's instruction, his son asked for the eyes and heart. When
these were returned to him, the Storm-god vanquished Illuyankas, but
slew his son as well when the youth sided with the dragon. The
ritual of his defeat was invoked every spring to symbolize the
He is a serpent who loved Ishtar.
These gods who live in the dark earth are charged by Kumarbis
through Imbaluris to hide Ullikummis from the sky gods, the Sun-god,
the Storm-god, and Ishtar. They are also charged with placing the
child on the shoulder of Upelluri. Later they accept the child and
deliver it to Ellil, before placing it on Upelluri's right shoulder.
He took his place at the Moon-god's side when he fell from heaven on
the gate complex and uttered a spell.
She is the goddess of magic and healing. She witnessed and announced
the Moon-god's fall from heaven on to the gate complex. She is the
goddess of magic and healing. After Telepinus has been found, yet
remains angry, she is set to cure him of his temper. She performs an
elaborate magical ritual, removing his evil and malice. In another
tablet, she performs the spell of fire, which removes various
illnesses, changing them to a mist which ascends to heaven, lifted
by the Dark Earth. The Sea-god questions the fire on its role.
Astabis (Zamama, Akkadian Ninurta)
He is a Hurrian warrior god. After the Storm-god's first attack on
Ullikummis is unsuccessful, he leads seventy gods in battle wagons
on an attack on the diorite giant. They try to draw the water away
from him, perhaps in order to stop his growth, but they fall from
the sky and Ullikummis grows even larger, towering over the gate of
He is a minor god who, properly attended to, removes impotence.
This god's symbol is the stag. He is associated with rural areas.
She is the chief goddess of the Neo-Hittites, she became Cybebe to
the Phrygians and Cybele to the Romans. She was known as Kybele in
He is a god of pestilence. A festival was held for him every autumn.
He is a god who can protect travelers, possibly by causing them to
He is the chief god of the town of Kastama, held in greater regard
there than the Storm-god, possibly gaining such influence through
drawing lots with the other gods.
She is the concubine of Zashapuna.
One of the deities who sat under the Hawthorn tree awaiting the
return of Telipinus.
One of the deities who sat under the Hawthorn tree awaiting the
return of Telipinu.
One of the deities who sat under the Hawthorn tree awaiting the
return of Telipinu. (S)he? also sat under Thippiyas tree when
Hannahanna found the hunting bag.
They were among the deities who sat under the Hawthorn tree awaiting
the return of Telipinu. In one myth, they and the Mother-goddesses
One of the deities who sat under the Hawthorn tree awaiting the
return of Telipinu.
Tutelary-deity, (Sumerian Lamma)
One of the deities who sat under the Hawthorn tree awaiting the
return of Telipinu.
A deity involved in returning the lost Storm-god of Nerik.
When the Sea-god captures the Sun-god, he takes hold of the other
gods and of the land's plants and animals, paralyzing them. He is
half-brother to Hasamili's brothers and spares them from his grip.
Akkadian Import Gods
Anu's female counterpart, imported to the Hitties through the
He is presented with Ullikummis by the Irsirra deities and declares
that the child will bring the mightiest battles and an awesome rival
to the Storm-god. Later, Ea and presumably the Storm-god present
before him a case against Kumarbis' for his creation of Ullikummis.
He counters with Kumarbis' good record of worship and sacrifice and
is in turn countered with Ea's testimony describing Ullikummis.
Ellil's wife. She was imported by way of the Hurrians.
Lelwanis (Lilwani, Ereshkigal, sometimes
assimilated with Ishtar), 'Sun of the Earth'
Goddess of the earth and the nether-world, appeasement of her
through sheep sacrifices helps remove threats from evil omens.
This goddess is the mother of the Storm-god. She plays a role in
returning him from the underworld by opening the gates of the Dark
He is the keeper of the 'old tablets with the words of fate'. The
Ullikummis myth has him as the father of the Storm-god. He attends
Kumarbis and fetches that god's son to be devoured as a means of
releaving Kumarbis pains from the Storm-god. He advises Kumarbis to
have experts work 'poor' magic to aid him in his distress, bringing
bulls and sacrifices of meal. This magic helps secure Kumarbis's 'tarnassus'.
He is prevailed upon by the Storm-god following his defeat by
Ullikummis. He and presumably the Storm-god present a case against
Kumarbis' for his creation of Ullikummis before Ellil. Rebutting
Ellil's defense that Kumarbis is well behaved regarding worship and
sacrifices, Ea proclaims that Ullikummis 'will block off heaven and
the gods holy houses.' He seeks out Upelluri, and after interviewing
him, locates Ullukummis feet on Upelluri's shoulder. He charges the
olden gods to deliver the copper knife with which they severed
heaven from earth, in order to cut through Ullukummis' feet. He then
spurs Tasmisus and the Storm-god on to fight the crippled giant.
Tapkina (Hurrian) (Damkina)
Ea's wife, imported from the Akkadians by way of the Hurrians.
Shaushka (Hurrian) (Ishtar)
She takes the form of a winged female standing on a lion.
She spies her brothers, the Storm-god and Tasmisus, leaving the
kuntarra following word of the appearance of Ullikummis. She leads
them by hand, up Mount Hazzi, from which they can view the giant.
When the Storm-god is vexed and fearful at the site of Kumarbis'
son, she chides him. Later, she takes up her galgalturi/harp and
sings to the blind and deaf Ullikummis, but her folly is exposed to
her by a great wave from the sea, who charges her to seek out her
brother who is yet to be emboldened to the inevitable battle. She
was loved by the serpent Hedammu.
Various rituals were performed to call upon demons for protection or
to drive away baneful deities summoned by sorcerers.
Properly propitiated with ritual, libation, and goat sacrifice, this
demon drives away evil sickness.
Properly propitiated with ritual and the sacrifice of a buck, this
demon staves off sickness and grants long, healthy life.
He is a resident of Ziggaratta. He is recruited by Inaras to aid in
defeating Illuyankas. He agrees to her plan after eliciting her
promise to sleep with him. When Illuyankas and his children are
gorged on Inaras's feast, he ties them up for the Storm-god to kill.
he is set up in a house by Inaras with the instructions not to look
out the window while she is away, lest he see his family. He does,
and begs to go home. Here the text is broken and some researches
assume that he is killed.
The olden gods built heaven and earth upon Upelluri. They had a
copper knife which they used to cleave the heaven from the earth,
after which they stored it in ancient storehouses and sealed them up
- only to open them and retrieve it for use on Ullikummis.
The house of the gods in heaven.
The Dark Earth, i.e. the Underworld
It has an entrance with gates. It holds bronze or iron palhi-vessels
with lead lids. That which enters them, perishes within and doesn't
return. Telipinu and Hannahanna's anger is banished there.
Hatti Civilization (2500-2000 B.C.)
The people known as Hattis are amongst the oldest settlers in
Anatolian history. They ruled central Anatolia for about 500 years.
Small city kingdoms were their favorite type of settlement units.
They spoke a totally different language than the other influential
Anatolian civilizations. There are signs of Mesopotamian influence
on Hatti art and culture.
The main cities Mahmatlar, Horoztepe, Alacahoyuk and Hattus are
inside the Kizilirmak (Red River, a large river in central Anatolia)
They believed in a number of gods representing various acts of
nature in the form of animals. Some statues of their most popular
gods are on exhibition in some major museums of Turkey.
Hatti and Hittite Principalties Period (2000 - 1750 B.C.)
By the end of the 3rd millenium B.C. a large scale migration took
place mainly from North Europe to the mild weathered south. One of
the strong elements of the Indo-European people, Hittites gravitated
to Anatolia through Caucasia while Hatti principalities were ruling
These newcomers did not invade the land suddenly. They settled along
side the existing people and set their own settlement units in time.
Only after a long time, as a lot of Hittite principalities emerged,
they claimed the rule of the land, Anatolia. They never destroyed
the existing people and their cities. But instead, they mixed with
the Hattis and other people of Anatolia. They even shared their
gods, goddesses, art, culture and a large amount of words from Hatti
By 1750 B.C. Hittites were the only rulers of Anatolia.