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Adana

 

 

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Adana (Cilicia)

   
   

 

   
   

Situated in the middle of the Cukurova Plain (Cilician Plain), Adana is the fourth largest city of Turkey, nestled in the most fertile agricultural area of the whole country which is fed by the lifegiving waters of River Seyhan.

The city's name originates in mythology, where it was said to have been founded by Adanus, the son of Kronus (God of Weather).

Due to its being in the heart of that fertile center Adana has been an important city for many civilizations for centuries dating back to the Hittites. The precious River Seyhan is spanned by the ancient Taskopru (Stone Bridge) which was built by Hadrian and then repaired by Justinian. It is worth noting that to built a 300 yards long stone bridge in Roman times was a real feat.

In the city, the 16thcentury Great Mosque (Ulu Camii), the Yag or Eski Mosque, the Hasan Aga Mosque, Saat Kulesi (the clock-tower) built in 1882, an old covered bazaar, Bedesten or Arasta are of interest. Also be sure to see the Ethnographical Museum where Turkish carpets, swords, manuscript books and tombstones are exhibited. The building itself is interesting as well since it was built as a church by the Crusaders. The Adana Archaeological Museum merits visiting too. Adana is also famous for its delicious Adana Kebap.

The tea houses and restaurants alongside the Seyhan Dam and Lake provide a cool and perfect view of the city and the river at sunsets.

Yumurtalik (84 kms from Adana) and Karatas (50 kms from Adana)are the nearest beaches with proper accommodation. In Yumurtalik there is an ancient harbour castle contributing much to this pretty fishing city. For fishing, there is Camlik Park 30 kms southwest of Adana.

There are some ancient cities on the road to Iskenderun which include Roman remnants. Misis is on the caravan route that came from China, India and Persia. Among the remains of Roman times, the most interesting is the elegant mosaic of the 4th century A.D representing Noah's Ark. Yilanlikale has the ruins of a fortress set atop a peak dominating the River Ceyhan. Dilekkaya, the ancient Anavarza, was an important RomanByzantine city which still preserves the outline of the old city including two particularly worthwhile mosaics. Karatepe National Park is the neoHittite site where you will find the remains of the summer residence of King Asitawada, tablets of Hittite and Phoenician inscriptions, and an openair museum holding many remnants. Castabala and Toprakkale are the other historical remains. Karsanb Forest, Burucek, Tekir, Horzum, Zorkum meadows are ideal for picnicking and resting.

   
   

Time Line of Cilicia - Adana

   
   

The south coast of Anatolia northeast of Cyprus and northwest of Antioch. There are really two Cilicias; the east is a broad plain, quite fertile, while in the west the ramparts of the Taurus Mountains run right down to the sea, with the interior being quite rugged and underpopulated.

   
   

To the Hittites................................c. 2200-c. 1200

  • Cilix

Luvians (interior).............................c. 1250-c. 1000 with...

Achaean Greeks (coastal).......................c. 1200-c. 850 with...

  • Aetion........................................fl. c. 1200

Neo-Hittite states.............................c. 1000-c. 850

Kingdom of Que Eastern Cilicia, capital at Adana

Awarikku...........................................fl. c. early 800's

Kateh...........................................c. 850-c. 835

Kirri...........................................c. 835-c. 820

??

To Assyria......................................c. 740-c. 705

  • Urikki.....................................c. 741-c. 722 d. c. 709

Mopsus..........................................c. 705- ?

To Assyria......................................c. 670-609

Kingdom of Hilakku Western Cilicia. "Hilakku" is the root from which "Cilicia" is derived.

Ambarish............................................c. 712

Sanduarris..........................................c. 680

To Assyria......................................c. 670-609

  • Sanasarris.....................................c. 650

To Babylonia.......................................609-539

  • Kingdom of Cilicia
  • Syennesis I...................................fl. 585
    Note that "Syennesis" appears to be a title rather than a proper name - thus, the names of this person and the two others listed below are problematic.
  • Appuwašu......................................fl. c. 546

To Persia..........................................539-332

  • Oromedon ?
  • Syennesis II..................................fl. 480
  • Syennesis III.................................fl. 401 with ? ...
  • Epyaxa (fem.)..................................fl. 401
  • Epyaxa is known from references to her in Xenophon's Persian Expedition, where she gives considerable aid to the rebel Cyrus. The comments about her do not explicitly state that she was a co-ruler with Syennesis III, simply that she was "Queen" - but she acted in a very independent fashion.
  • Tiribazus.....................................384-380
  • Farnabaza.....................................379-374 with...
  • Datames.......................................378-372
  • Mazda'i (Governor of Babylon 336-328).........361-336 d. 328
  • Arshama...........................................332

To Macedon.........................................332-316

  • Balakros......................................332-328
  • Philotus......................................323-321
  • Eumenes (satrap of Cappadocia)................321-316

To the Kingdom of Antigonus........................316-301

Pleistarchus.......................................301-298 d. 294

To Macedon (Demetrius the Beseiger)................298-293

Cassander..........................................293-285

To the Seleucid Empire.............................285-240

To Egypt...........................................240-194

To the Seleucid Empire.............................194-145

To Egypt...............................................145

To the Seleucid Empire.............................145-83

  • Xenophantes...................................fl. c. 100

To Armenia..........................................83-63

Tarcondimotus I Philantonius........................64-31

To the Roman Empire.................................31-20

Tarcondimotus II Philopator.....................20 BCE-17 CE

To the Roman Empire..............................17 CE-260

  • Antonius Polemon...............................41-72

To Persia..........................................260-261

To the Roman Empire................................261-395

To the Byzantine Empire............................395-637

  • Occupied by Persia...........................540, 611

To the Caliphate...................................637-868

To Egypt...........................................868-896

To the Caliphate...................................896-935

To the Byzantine Empire............................935-1071

To the Seljuqs....................................1071-1080

Kingdom of Armenia Minor Note: do not confuse with the late Classical state of the same name based at Nicopolis, west of the Euphrates.

Reubenid

Reuben I..........................................1080-1095

Constantine.......................................1095-1100

Toros I...........................................1100-1129

Leo I.............................................1129-1138

To Byzantine Empire...............................1138-1145

Toros II..........................................1145-1169

Reuben II.........................................1169-1170

Mleh..............................................1170-1175

Reuben III........................................1175-1186

Leo II the Great..................................1186-1219

Isabella (fem.)....................................1219-1252 with...

  • Adam of Baghran, regent 1219/20
  • Constantine of Lampron (Hethumid), regent 1219/20-1226 d. 1263

Antiochid

Philip............................................1222-1225 and then...

Hetumid (Sharabied)

Hetum I of Lampron (son of regent Constantine)....1226-1269

Leo III...........................................1269-1289

Hetum II..........................................1289-1293 d. 1305

Toros III.........................................1293-1294

Hetum II (restored)...............................1294-1296 d. 1305

Smbat.............................................1296-1298

Hetum II (re-restored).................................1298 d. 1305

Constantine II....................................1298-1299

Hetum II (re-re-restored).........................1299-1305

Leo IV............................................1305-1308

Oshin.............................................1308-1320

Leo V.............................................1320-1341

De Lusignan

Guy...............................................1342-1344

Hetumid

Constantine III...................................1344-1363

Constantine IV....................................1363-1373 opposed by...

De Lusignan

Peter.............................................1368-1369

Leo VI............................................1373-1375 d. 1393

Emirate of KARAMAN

Ramadan-Oghlu

Ahmad.............................................1375-1407

Ibrahim I.........................................1407-1416

'Izz ud-Din Hamza Beg.............................1416-1419

Muhammad I Beg....................................1419-1436 with...

'Ali Beg..........................................1419-1436

Arslan Daoud......................................1436-1480

Ghars ud-Din Khalil Beg...........................1480-1510 with...

Mahmud Beg........................................1480- ?

Piri Muhammad Pasha...............................1510-1568

Darwish Beg.......................................1568-1578

Ibrahim II Beg....................................1578-1594

Muhammad II.......................................1594-1608

To Ottoman Empire and Turkey.................................1608-1919

Occupied by France................................1919-1920

To Turkey.........................................1920-

  
   
   

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