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Antioch

 

 

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Hatay (Antakya, Antioch)

       
   

 

       
   

Antakya, the biblical Antioch, is situated on the Asi River (Orontes) in a fertile surrounding. Antakya was once the capital of the Seleucid kings and the life they lead in Antakya was renowned for its luxury and pleasures during Roman times. The city was the center of Christianity and had been visited by St.Barnabas, St.Paul and St.Peter. The city was also famous as a center of artistic, scientific and commercial activities.

The Hatay Museum deserves a particular interest, in that it houses one of the richest collections of Roman mosaics in the world.

A little outside the city is the holy site where St.Peter's Grotto is situated. The cave church is the place where St.Peter preached and founded the Christian community. It was declared as a holy place by Vatican in 1983. The Iron Gate of Antioch is to the south of the grotto among the ruins of the city. One can sense these far off times since little has changed since that time. The Castle of Antioch will give you a panoramic view over.

Antakya is steeped in history and mythology at every step Harbiye, 8 km. after Antioch, is the place where Apollo fell in love with Daphne and tried to have her, but Mother Earth, in order to save Daphne, turned her into an elegant tree. The site is full of these trees accompanying the orchid gardens, and waterfalls where you may have a pleasant meal. St. Pierre Church, Haron Carving are the main historical remains.

For both beach and sightseeing opportunities Samandag is perfect. Seleuica Pieria, 6 km south of Samandag, is the ancient city which was a busy port at the time when Paul and Barnabas made their first missionary journey from here. The Titus-Vespasianus Tunnel which was built to divert the rain waters, even by today's standard, is a superb example of engineering. Near by there are 12 rock tombs to be visited.

A drive to Kapisuyu village will provide you with a fascinating scene from the Zeus Temple. There is an excellent view from there of the harbor, sandy beach and fertile plain lying below.

There are many picnic and camping areas. Hunting, fishing and thermal springs' facilities are the other attractions.

       
   

Time Line of Antioch (Hatay) 

       
   

Located at the northeast corner of the Mediterranean Sea, at the point where the coast abruptly turns south towards Sinai. Founded in 300 BCE, it became the capital of the Seleucids. In later times, it continued to be a significant provincial city. See also, the Eastern Orthodox Patriarchs, the Jacobite Patriarchs , and the Melkite Patriarchs of Antioch.

       
   

Founded and made capital of the Seleucid Empire....301-145

To Egypt...............................................145

To the Seleucid Empire.............................145-83

To Armenia..........................................83-73

To the Seleucid State...............................73-64

To Armenia..........................................64-63

To the Roman Republic...............................63-27 BCE

To the Roman Empire.............................27 BCE-260 CE

To Persia..........................................260-261

To Palmyra.........................................261-272

To the Roman Empire................................272-395

To the Byzantine Empire............................395-637

Occupied by Persia...........................540, 611

To the Caliphate...................................637-969

To the Byzantine Empire............................969-1078

To Marash.........................................1078-1085

To the Rum Seljuqs................................1085-1086

To the Great Seljuqs..............................1086-1098

Principality of Antioch

De Hauteville

Mark Bohemond I...................................1098-1111

  • Tancred FitzRobert de Hauteville, Prince of Galilee, regent 1100-1103, 1108-1112. See also Edessa.

Bohemond II.......................................1111-1131

Roger FitzRichard de Salerno, regent 1112-1119

Baldwin de Rethel (Bourg) (K. Jerusalem 1118-31), regent 1119-26, 1130-31

Constance (fem.)...................................1131-1163 with...

  • Fulk de Anjou (K. of Jerusalem 1131-43), regent 1131-1136

Poitiers (Aquitaine)

Raymond I.........................................1136-1139 and then...

Chatillon

Reynald the Wolf (also held Krak des Moabites)....1153-1160

Poitiers (Aquitaine)

Bohemond III the Stammerer........................1163-1201 with...

Raymond I (II)....................................1193-1194 d. 1197

Bohemond IV One-Eye (in Tripoli 1187-1201)........1201-1205 d. 1233

Raymond II (III)..................................1205-1208 d. 1219

Bohemond IV One-Eye (restored)....................1208-1216 d. 1233

Raymond II (III) (restored)........................1216-1219

Bohemond IV One-Eye (re-restored).................1219-1233

Bohemond V (in Tripoli 1233-1251).................1233-1251

Bohemond VI (in Tripoli 1251-1275)................1251-1268 d. 1275

To Mamluk Egypt...................................1268-1517

To Ottoman Turkey.................................1517-1918

To France.........................................1918-1938

Republic of Hatay.................................1938-1939

To Turkey.........................................1939-

       
   

Aravelian

       
   

A principality within the ancient Kingdom of Armenia, in North-Eastern Anatolia. It was largely autonomous between 400 and 800 CE.

       
   

To Armenia.........................................384-c. 428

Phapag.............................................fl. c. 451 with...

Phabak and...

Varonden and...

Tal

To Persia.....................................c. 500 ?-c. 590

?

To Persia..........................................628-654

  • Katchean......................................fl. c. 640

To the Caliphate...................................654-c. 860

To Armenia thereafter...

       
   

Arzawa

       
   

An ancient state, located in Western Anatolia. The exact location is unknown, but it was probably located in the vicinity of Ephesus. The populations was Luwian, and spoke an Indo-European language related to Hittite.

Kupanta-Kurunta....................................fl. c. 1430 BCE followed by...

Madduwatta of Zippasla

Tarhundaradus......................................fl. c. 1350

Anzapahhadu........................................fl. 1300's

Uhhaziti........................................... ? -1343/2

To the Hittites.................................1343/2-c. 1200 opposed by...

  • Piyama-Kurunda....................................1343/2
  • Tapalazunaulis....................................1342/1
  • Further non-Hittite rulers in this region, at various locales:
  • Kupanta-Kurunta (at Mira)..................fl. c. 1320 and...
  • Mashhiuiluwa (at Mira).....................fl. c. 1320 and...
  • Targashnalli (at Happalla).................fl. c. 1320
  • Manappa-Tarhunta (at Sheha)................fl. c. 1320
  • Mashturi (at Sheha)........................fl. c. 1280
  • Piyamaradu (capital unknown)...............fl. c. 1260

Destroyed by the Sea People c.1200 BCE

??

Within Lydia...................................c. 1000-600's

Ardu...............................................fl. mid 600's

To Persia by 540, general western Anatolian sequence thereafter; see Ephesus.

       
   

Atarneus

       
   

An ephemeral Greek statelet in Asia Minor, centered around the polis of Assos in the Troad.

Tyrants of Assos

Eubolos the Banker............................c. 370's-350's

Hermeias the Eunuch...........................c. 350's-344

Hermeias was the eunuch slave of his predecessor. He was a student of Plato and a friend of Aristotle, who lived in Assos from 347-344 and married Hermeias' niece and adopted daughter.

To Persia..........................................344-333

To Macedon 333; See Trojan chronology thereafter.

       
   

Baluni

       
   

A principality of Armenia, in northeastern Anatolia, autonomous from around 400-800 CE

To Armenia.........................................384-c. 428

Varazchapuh........................................fl. c. 445

Arzak..............................................fl. c. 451 with...

Varazchapuh (II?)..................................fl. 451

Phapal.............................................fl. c. 480

To Persia.....................................c. 500 ?-c. 590

Varaz..............................................fl. c. 605

To Persia..........................................628-654

To the Caliphate...................................654-c. 860

To Armenia thereafter...

       
   
   

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Last modified: 2022-11-16
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