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History of Turkey: Timeline of Turkey-Turkiye

   
   
   
   

 

  17th century BCE

1600 BCE     Hittite Empire established in the region of Anatolia with capital in Hattusa near present-day Boğazkale, Turkey. i

16th century BCE

1590 BCE     Hittite king Mursili I invades Mesopotamia and sacks the city of Babylon, putting an end to the Amorite dynasty of Hammurabi. i

14th century BCE

1346 BCE     Hittite empire reaches its height under the rule of Šuppiluliuma I. i

13th century BCE

1274 BCE     Battle of Kadesh between the Hittite Empire and the New Kingdom of Egypt. i

12th century BCE

1178 BCE     Collapse of the Hittite Empire, splinters into several independent Syro-Hittite states. i

5th century BCE

499–493 BCE    Ionian Revolt, military rebellion by the Greek regions of Anatolia against Persian Empire rule. Revolt is crushed. i

4th century BCE i

334 BC     Alexander III of Macedon crosses the Hellespont into Asia, making his landing in present-day Turkey.

334 BC May     Alexander III of Macedon defeats the armies of the Achaemenid Empire in the Battle of the Granicus river (modern-day Biga Çayı). i

333 BC 5 November    Alexander III of Macedon defeats the armies of the Achaemenid Empire in the Battle of Issus.

323 BC 10/11 June    Alexander III dies in Babylon, triggering a division of his empire including present-day Turkey, among his generals in a treaty known as the Partition of Triparadisus. i

2nd century BCE

133 BC     Roman Empire invades Anatolia which becomes the Roman province of Asia. Under Roman rule, the region becomes prosperous, roads and infrastructures are built and improved and coastal communities flourish. i

4th century

324     The Roman emperor Constantine I chooses Byzantium (later known as Constantinople and currently Istanbul) to be the new capital of the Roman Empire, renaming it New Rome.

324     Constantine I becomes the first Roman emperor to convert to Christianity

360 15 February    The Hagia Sophia Church is first consecrated by the Arian Bishop Eudoxius of Antioch. i

5th century

476     The region becomes part of the Byzantine Empire with the collapse of the Roman Empire. i

7th century

674–678     First Arab Siege of Constantinople by the Umayyad Caliphate, ends with Byzantine victory. i

8th century

717–718     Second Arab Siege of Constantinople by the Umayyad Caliphate, ends with Byzantine victory. i

9th century

863     Beginning of the Byzantine resurgence with emergence of Macedonian dynasty, most of lost territories are retaken from Arab invasions. i

11th centuryi

1071      Alp Arslan of the Great Seljuq Empire defeats Romanos IV Diogenes of the Byzantine Empire at Malazgirt, near Muş, Historical Armenia Eastern Anatolia. i

1077      Suleyman I of Rum is appointed as a governor in Seljuq .Then they moved on to Turkey. But he acts independently and founds a state. Capital İznik (Nicea), Bursa Province, Northwest Anatolia. i

1081      Tzachas, an independent Turkish sea captain, founds a principality in Izmir, giving the Seljuks access to Aegean Sea. i

1084      Conquest of Antakya (Antioch), South Anatolia. i

1086      Süleyman I of Rum tries to add Syria to his realm. But he commits suicide after being defeated by his cousin Tutush I in the battle of Aynu Seylem, Syria. i

1092      Kılıç Arslan I (1092–1107) i

1096      Kılıç Arslan I defeats Walter Sans Avoir and Peter the Hermit of People's Crusade at the battles of Xerigordon and Civetot both in Northwest Anatolia. i

1097      Bohemond of Taranto, Godfrey of Bouillon and Adhemar of Le Puy of First Crusade defeat Kılıç Arslan I in the battle of Dorylaeum (near modern Eskişehir, Central Anatolia). The capital İznik is lost to Crusades. A few years later Konya, becomes the new capital

1100      Danishmend Gazi, an independent bey, defeats Bohemond I of Antioch in the battle of Melitene (Malatya) i

12th century i

1100s       12th century renaissance in the Byzantine Empire, revival of art, architecture and economic activity. i

1101      Kılıç Arslan I defeats Stephen of Blois and Hugh of Vermandois of the second wave of First Crusades at the Battle of Mersivan (near modern Merzifon, Amasya Province, Central Anatolia.) i

1107      Kılıç Arslan conquers Musul, Iraq, but is defeated in the battle. i

1110      Şahinşah (1107–1116) (also called Melikşah, not to be confused with the sultan of Great Seljuk Empire with the same name) Continuous struggle with the Crusades weakens the state. i

1116      Mesut I (1116–1156) During the early years of his reign he has to accept the dominance of Danishmends a rival Turkish state in Anatolia. i

1142      Mehmed of Danishmends dies and the Sultanate of Rum become the leading power of Anatolia for the second time. i

1147      Mesut I defeats Holy Roman Emperor Conrad III of Second Crusade in the Second battle of Dorylaeum (near modern Eskişehir) i

Mesud I defeats French king Louis VII of Second Crusade at Laodicea (near modern Denizli, West Anatolia). i

1156      Kılıç Arslan II (1156–1192) i

1176      Kılıç Arslan defeats Manuel I Komnenos of Byzantine Empire in the battle of Myriokephalon (probably near Çivril, Denizli Province, West Anatolia). i

1178      Kılıç Arslan II annexes Danishmend realm. (Sivas, and the surrounding territory, Central Anatolia.) i

1186      Kılıç Arslan II partitions the country into 11 provinces, each governed by one of his sons. i

1190      Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa of Third Crusade crosses West Anatolia. While main Turkish army avoids conflict, several irregular troops try to fight, but are repelled. Temporary German occupation of capital Konya. i

1190      Frederick Barbarossa of Third Crusade dies near Silifke, Mersin Province in South Anatolia. i

1192      Keyhüsrev I (1192–1196) i

1194      After the collapse of Great Seljuk Empire, the Sultanate of Rum become the sole surviving branch of Seljuks. i

1196      Suleyman II of Rum (1196–1204) i

13th century i

1202      Süleyman II of Rum annexes Saltukid realm (Erzurum, and the surrounding territory, Eastern Anatolia.) i

Georgian army defeats Süleyman II at the Battle of Micingerd i

1204      Kılıç Arslan III (1204–1205) i

1205      Keyhüsrev I (1205–1211) (second time) i

1207      Conquest of Antalya, access to Mediterranean Sea i

1211      Keykavus I (1211–1220) i

1214      Conquest of Sinop, Black Sea coast i

1220      Alaaddin Kayqubad I (1220–1237) i

1221      Conquest of Alanya, Antalya Province, Mediterranean coast i

1223      Construction of an arsenal in Alanya, a sign of Alaaddin Keykubat's interest in maritime trade i

1224      Alladdin Keykubat annexes a part of Artuqid realm (Harput and surrounding territory). i

1225      Kayi Obasi (Tribe) i

1227      Sudak in Crimea is annexed. This is the most notable overseas campaign of Seljuqs. i

1228      Mongol conquests in Iran result in a flux of refugees to Anatolia, one of the refuges is Mevlana i

Alaaddin Keykubat I annexes Mengucek realm (Erzincan and the surrou inding territory), Eastern Anatolia .

1230      Alaaddin Keykubat defeats Celaleddin Harzemşah of Harzemşah Empire in the Battle of Yassıçemen, near Erzincan i

1237      Keyhüsrev II (1237–1246) i

1238      Sadettin Köpek the vizier of the inexperienced sultan who has executed some members of Seljuk house and becomes the de facto ruler of the sultanate is killed. i

1239      Revolt of Baba Ishak. A revolt of Turkmen (Oguz) and Harzem refugees who have recently arrived in Anatolia. The revolt is suppressed. But the sultanate loses power. i

1240      Conquest of Diyarbakır in Southeast Anatolia. i

1243      Bayju of Mongols defeats Keyhüsrev II in the battle of Kösedağ, Eastern Anatolia. From now on, the sultanate is a vassal of Ilkhanids. i

1246      Keykavus II (1246–1262) Governs together with his two brothers. But the real ruler is vizier Pervâne who has married to late sultan's widow Gürcü Hatun. i

1256      Mongols defeat Seljuk Turks at the Battle of Sultanhan, Aksaray Province, Central Anatolia. i

1258      Mongols partition the country. Double sultanate i

1262      Kılıç Arslan IV 1260–1266 i

1266      Keyhüsrev III 1266–1284 i

1277      Karamanoğlu Mehmet Bey, a semi independent bey, allies himself with the Mameluk sultan Baybars who invades a part of Anatolia.

Karamanoğlu Mehmed Bey conquers Konya and enthrones his puppet Jimri. But Ilkhanids intervene and reestablish Keyhüsrev's reign. (During his short stay in Konya Mehmed Bey declares Turkish as the official language in his realm). i

1284      Mesut II 1284–1297 i

1289      Seljuk-Ilkhanid coalition defeats the tribes of Germiyanids i

1297      Alaaddin Kekubat III 1297–1302 i

1299      Osman I, founder of the Ottoman Empire, begin the Ottoman history. (According to Halil İnalcık, expert on Ottoman history, Ottoman Empire was founded in 1302 not 1299.) i

14th century i

1302      Mesut II 1302–1307 (last sultan of Rum) i

1371 27 September    Battle of Maritsa. Most of Macedonia is conquered. i

1389 15 June    Battle of Kosovo. Most of Serbia is conquered. i

1396 25 September    Battle of Nicopolis. Bulgaria is conquered. i

15th century i

1444      10 November Battle of Varna. Ottoman victory, end of Crusade of Varna. i

1453      Mehmed II (the Conqueror) captures Constantinople, Christian emperor Constantine XI dies in the fighting and the Byzantine Empire yields to the Ottoman Empire as Mehmed II. i

1460      Mehmed II conquers Morea. i

1461      Mehmed II conquers Trabzon thus ends Empire of Trebizond. i

1462      Mehmed II begins to build his palace, Topkapi Palace (Topkapı Sarayi). i

1463      Bosnia is conquered. i

1473      Battle of Otlukbeli; Mehmed II defeats Uzun Hasan of Akkoyunlu Turkmens. i

1475      Gedik Ahmet Pasha captures Caffa. Crimea becomes vassal of the Ottoman Empire. i

1478      Albania is conquered. i

1480      Gedik Ahmet Pasha captures Otranto, the southeast corner of Italy, as a base for further attacks on Italy (only to evacuate after the death of Mehmet II). i

1481      3 May Mehmed II dies. Bayezid II ascended to the throne. i

1482      Herzegovina is conquered. i

1498      Montenegro is conquered. i

16th century i

1514      Battle of Chaldiran; Selim I defeats Ismail I of Safavid Persia; Kurdistan under control of Ottoman Empire. i

1516      Battle of Marj Dabiq; Selim I defeats Al-Ashraf Qansuh al-Ghawri of Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt. Syria and Palestine under Ottoman rule. i

1517      Battle of Ridaniya; Selim I defeats Tuman bay II of Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt. Egypt under Ottoman rule; Selim I takes the title caliph. i

1519      Algeria is conquered. i

1520      The reign of Suleiman the Magnificent (Suleiman I) begins. i

1521      Suleiman I captures Belgrade. i

1522      Suleiman I captures Rhodes. i

1526      Battle of Mohács. Suleiman I defeats Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia i

1529      Siege of Vienna. i

1533      Iraq under Turkish control. i

1538      Sea Batte of Preveza. Turkish navy controls most of Mediterranean Sea. i

1550      Sultanate of Women i

1551      Libya is conquered. i

1541      Suleiman I captures Budapest (known as Buda), which eventually leads to conquest of most of Hungary. i

1547      Most of Hungary under Turkish control. Hungary is divided, by agreement[citation needed] between the Ottoman sultan Suleiman I and Ferdinand I of Austria. i

1566      The reign of Suleiman the Magnificent (Suleiman I) ends. i

1569      The great fire of Istanbul broke out. i

1570      Conquest of Cyprus by Piyale Pasha i

1571      The Spanish and the Venetians defeat the Turks at the Battle of Lepanto. i

1574      Tunisia is conquered. i

1578      Tbilisi and most of Georgia conquered. i

1590      Treaty of İstanbul between Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia; Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia as well as west Iran under Ottoman rule. i

17th century i

1610      Kuyucu Murat Pasha suppresses Jelali revolts. Turkmens suffer heavily. i

1612      Treaty of Nasuh Pasha between Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia. Ottoman Empire gives up some gains of Treaty of Istanbul of 1590. i

1615      Treaty of Serav ratifies Treaty of Nasuh Pasha i

1683      12 September Battle of Vienna. Ottoman defeat. i

1686      Hungary evacuated. i

1687      Mehmed IV is deposed. i

1699      Ottomans cede Hungary to Austria in the Treaty of Karlowitz. i

18th century i

1718      Treaty of Passarowitz signed. i

Beginning of Tulip era (up to 1730) i

1729      First printing press in Turkish by Ibrahim Muteferrika i

1730      Revolt of Patrona Halil. End of Tulip era. Ahmet III is dethroned. i

1739      Treaty of Belgrade signed. i

1774      Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca signed. i

1795      First newspaper in Ottoman Empire (Bulletin de Nouvelles.) i

19th century i

1807      May Kabakçı Mustafa rebellion: Reformist sultan Selim III dethroned. i

1808      21 July Alemdar Mustafa Pasha suppresses the rebellion. But Selim III is dead and Mahmut II becomes the new sultan. i

1813      23 April Second Serbian Uprising: The Serbs revolt. i

1821      Greek War of Independence: The Greek War of Independence begins. i

1826      15 June Auspicious Incident. Massacre of the Janissary corps by Sultan Mahmud II: Foundation of a modern western style army. i

1830      Algeria is gradually ceded to French rule. i

1832      21 July Greek War of Independence: Greek sovereignty is formalized. i

1831      Egyptian–Ottoman War. (to 1833) i

1853      4 October  Crimean War: The Crimean War with Russia began which, though won with British, French and Sardinian aid, would further demonstrate how backward the Ottoman military had become. i

1860      21 October First newspaper in Turkish published by Agah Efendi.(Tercümen'ı Ahval). i

1862      5 February A united Romanian autonomous state is established. i

1876      23 December Opened the 1876–1877 Constantinople Conference. i

1877         24 April Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878): Another war with Russia begins. i

1878      March Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878): The Treaty of San Stefano recognizes Romanian and Serbian independence, as well as the establishment of an autonomous Bulgarian principality under nominal Ottoman protection. Austria-Hungary occupies Bosnia by default. i

4 June      Cyprus is occupied by Britain. i

1881      Mustafa Kemal Atatürk was born. Tunisia becomes a French colony. i

1882      Egypt goes under British protection. i

1885         6 September The province of Eastern Rumelia is transferred to Bulgarian jurisdiction. i

1894      Hamidian incidents…. i

20th century i

1908      i

3 July        Second Constitutional Era (Young Turk revolution) i

5 October    Turkey obtains full independence. i

7 October    Austria-Hungary annexes Bosnia by mere declaration. i

1912      The Ottomans are defeated by Italy in a short war, with the Italians gaining Libya and ending the 340-year Ottoman presence in North Africa. i

28 November    First Balkan War: Albania declares independence i

1913      17 May First Balkan War: The Ottoman Empire is nearly wiped out from Europe. i

1914      2 August The Ottoman Empire enters into World War I on the side of the Central Powers. Cyprus is annexed outright by Britain. i

1915         18 March The Gallipoli Campaign was considered one of the greatest victories of the Turks at World War 1 and was reflected on as a major failure by the TURKISH ENEMIES. i

1915      GENOCIDE of  4.000.000 Turks in Balkans. i

1918-1922    War against ENGLAND+FRANCE+ITALY and their puppets. Wiping them out of Anatolia in 1922. i

1923         29 October The Republic of Turkey was proclaimed. i

Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk) was unanimously elected the first President of the Republic of Turkey by secret vote. i

30 October    The first cabinet of the Republic of Turkey was formed by İsmet İnönü. i

1924      A new policy was instituted that imams will be appointed by the government. i

3 March     The Ottoman Caliphate was abolished by the Turkish Grand National Assembly. i

The Union of Education (Tevhid-i Tedrisat) Law was passed. i

The Ministry of Religious Affairs and all religious schools were abolished. i

6 March     Second cabinet, again by İsmet İnönü i

8 April      Religious courts were abolished and replaced with civil courts.

20 April     A new Turkish constitution was accepted. i

26 August    Türkiye İş Bankası was established. i

30 October    The generals who were also in parliament were asked to choose either military profession or politics but not both. (This event is known as the crisies of generals.) Only Prime Minister İsmet İnönü retains his title as General and remains in politics as Prime Minister. i

17 November    The second political party in Turkey, the Progressive Republican Party, was formed. i

22 November    Third cabinet by Fethi Okyar. i

1925 i

11 February     The Sheikh Said rebellion started in the astern provinces. i

25 February     A law separating religion from politics was accepted and passed in the TBMM. i

4 March     Fourth cabinet by İsmet İnönü i

5 May        An Armenian named Manok Manukyan was executed in Ankara for planning an assassination attempt on Mustafa Kemal. i

3 June      The Progressive Republican Party was closed and abolished for supposedly exploiting religion for political purposes. Republican Peoples Party of the governing elites remains as the only political organization in the country. According to "Takrir-i Sukun" law, all opposition newspapers are also banned and closed indefinitely and Turkish "Republic" becomes one of the first dictatorships in Europe. i

29 June     English agent Sheikh Said and his 46 followers were sentenced to death in Diyarbakır. i

27 August    Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk) came to Kastamonu to initiate the Hat Revolution. i

1 September    The first Turkish Medical Congress was assembled. i

4 September    Turkish women entered a beauty contest for the first time. i

1 October    Atatürk opened the Bursa textile factory.

5 November    Ankara Law School (then the Ankara University Faculty of Law) was opened. i

25 November    "Hat Law" was issued, abolishing religious dress. i

26 December    A law was passed which abolished the lunar calendar in favor of the international calendar. i

1926  i

17 February     A Turkish civil code based on the Swiss Civil Code was accepted. The code granted expanded civil rights to women and prohibited polygamy. i

1 March     A Turkish criminal code was established based on the Italian Criminal Code. i

17 March     A law was passed to nationalize the iron industry. i

24 March     A law was passed to nationalize the petroleum industry. i

1927  i

7 March     The extraordinary Independence Tribunals were  abolished. i

15 October    Mustafa Kemal Atatürk started his "Nutuk" speech. i

The second nationwide congress of the Republican People's Party took place. i

20 October    The "Nutuk" speech ended. i

28 October    The first population census counted the population at approximately thirteen and a half million. i

27 November    Fifth cabinet by İsmet İnönü i

25 December    The first female Turkish lawyer, Süreyya Ağaoğlu, began her duty. i

1928        i

10 April     The article "The official religion of Turkey is islam" was removed from the constitution. i

19 May     A law establishing an engineering school was accepted. i

1 November    A new Turkish alphabet based on the Latin script was accepted. i

1929  i

3 April      A new municipal law enabled women to  enter municipal elections both as voters and as candidates. i

29 April     The first female Turkish judges were appointed. i

13 May     A trade law was accepted by the TBMM. i

1 September    Arabic and Persian courses were abolished replaced by Turkish-only language courses. i

1930

11 June     A law was accepted which established the Turkish Republic Central Bank.

12 August    The Free Republican Party, the third party in the republic, was established. i

27 September    Sixth cabinet by İsmet İnönü i

27 October    Greek prime minister Venizelos visited Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in Ankara. i

17 November    After the Free Republican Party's cooption by radical religious groups, its leader Fethi Okyar decided to close. i

30 December    Mustafa Fehmi Kubilay, a second lieutenant in the Turkish army, was killed in a reactionary uprising. i

1931  i

16 March     The first female Turkish surgeon, Dr. Suat, received her specialty. i

26 March     The Measurements Law was accepted, abolishing the former Arabic length and weight measurement units and replacing them with the metric system (kilogram instead of okka, meter instead of endaze, etc.) i

20 April     Mustafa Kemal Atatürk historically declared the slogan "Peace at home, peace in the world!" i

4 May        Seventh cabinet by İsmet İnönü i

25 July     A new press law was accepted. i

1932  i

18 July     Turkey became a member of the League of Nations. i

31 July     Turkish woman Keriman Halis Ece was declared the World Beauty Queen at a contest in Belgium. i

13 November    Dr. Müfide Kazim became the first female Turkish government physician. i

12 December    Adile Ayda became the first female Turkish civil servant in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. i

1933  i

7 February     The first Turkish-language mosque prayers began in Istanbul. i

31 May     The 480-year-old Darülfünun was abolished, to be converted into Istanbul University. i

June       Sümerbank and Halkbank were established. i

26 October    Turkish women were granted the right to vote and be elected to Village Councils. i

18 November    Istanbul University was opened. i

1 December    The first five-year development plan was accepted. i

1934  i

21 June     The Surname Law was accepted, abolishing the former titles of Bey, Effendi, Pasha, Sultan, and Hanım as of 26 November. i

24 November    Mustafa Kemal Pasha took the surname Atatürk. i

The Hagia Sofia mosque was converted to the Ayasofya (Hagia Sofia) Museum. i

5 December    Turkish women were granted the right to vote and be elected in Turkish parliamentary elections. (Afterwards, in the first elections, 18 women were elected to the Turkish Grand National Assembly). i

1935      i

1 March     Eight cabinet by İsmet İnönü. i

1936  i

29 May     A law determining the size and ratios of the star and crescent in the Turkish flag was accepted. i

8 June      A labor law was accepted which represented the first step towards the Turkish Social Security System. i

1937  i

27 January     Hatay's independence was accepted by the League of Nations in its Geneva meeting. i

9 June      A law establishing a medical faculty in Ankara was accepted. i

20 September    Atatürk opened the first art gallery in his residence, the Dolmabahce Palace. i

9 October    Atatürk opened the Nazilli Printed Cloth Fabric Factory. i

25 October    Ninth cabinet by Celâl Bayar, former minister of Economy i

1937–1938     English controlled Dersim Rebellion: The revolt had quashed by government. i

1938 10 November    The founder Mustafa Kemal Atatürk died. He was succeeded by İsmet İnönü, former prime minister and general. Dclared to be "National Chief" (Millî Şef). i

1939      World War II: World War II began. Turkey was to remain neutral for most of the war, until a declaration of war against Germany at its end. i

7 July        The Province of Hatay joined Turkey. i

1950  i

14 May     First Democratic Elections in Turkish Republic. General İsmet İnönü and his Republican People's Party, which had ruled the country since 1923, loses election to newly formed Democratic Party of Celâl Bayar and Adnan Menderes. i

25 June     Korean War: The Korean War began. Turkey was a part of the joint UN operation. i

Müfide İlhan mayor of Mersin. First ever woman mayor in Turkey. i

1952      Turkey became a NATO member country strategically important in countering Soviet influence. i

1953      27 July  Korean War: The war ended. i

1954      Turkey began to host the United States Air Force at the Incirlik Air Base as a deterrent to the Soviet Union. i

1955  i

6 September    Istanbul Pogrom: The Istanbul Pogrom started the process of driving many Greeks and Christians from Turkey. i

7 September    Istanbul Pogrom: The pogrom drew to a close. i

1960 27 May    38 officers of Army form a junta and organize the 1960 Turkish coup d'état (CIA-USA-NATO). They claim the Islamists had gained influence in the government. After this clash over the "separation of religion and state/government" between İnönü's Republican People's Party and his opponents, democratically elected President Celâl Bayar and Prime Minister Adnan Menderes of Democratic Party, Prime Minister Adnan Menderes was held responsible by a kangaroo court selected by the junta and was executed with two of his ministers. i

1965 14 October    Military rule bowed out to civilian rule, and former Millî Şef (National Chief) İsmet İnönü again loses a democratic election, this time to the Justice Party of Mr. Süleyman Demirel. i

1971 12 March    Military officials forced an advisory committee on the government due to the increasing anarchical situation caused by the Right (fascist/capitalist) – Left (communist) clash and ineffective policies in maintaining order. Although the military were not in charge they had significant influence. i

1974      Turkey brought PEACE to Cyprus in response to a Greek-backed coup and GENOCIDE of Turks on the island. i

1980 12 September    The 1980 coup d'état took place by CIA+BND+NATO+USA. Martial law was almost immediately established and a quarter of the military (about 475 000) were mobilised to settle the resistance to the coup. i

1983 6 November    After the establishment of a new 1982 Constitution, the military regime dissolved itself. i

1991      After the ending of the 1991 Persian Gulf War, the Incirlik Air Base enforced the northern no-fly zones in Iraq. i

1999  i

24 March     Kosovo War: NATO interceded in the Balkans to end a civil war in the region. Turkey was part of the mission. i

10 June     Kosovo War: The war ended. i

21st century i

2002 June    Turkey assumed command of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan. i

2003      February  Turkey relinquished command of the ISAF. i

2004         17 December  The European Union (EU) agreed to begin negotiations on the eventual accession of Turkey. i

2005  i

14 February     Turkey assumed command of the ISAF in Afghanistan for a second time. i

3 October    The European Union (EU) started accession talks with Turkey. The talks did not start at the desired time due to disagreements. i

2011 24 March    Turkey gave NATO the green light and allowed Izmir to become the command center of the operation to oust Muammar Gaddafi's regime in Libya. i

2012 i

2013 17 December    A corruption scandal to topple the ruling AKP failed. i

2014      Turkey starts designing and manufacturing its own national tank Altay, helicopter Atak and drone Anka for the first time. i

30 March     Local elections held with the ruling AK Party displaying an overwhelming victory, especially in the motherland of Anatolia. i

28 August    Then Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan chosen as the first freely elected president of the nation. i

2016 15 July    Attempted coup by CIA+BND+NATO+USA+EU and subsequent crackdowns and purge. Over 80 000 traitors arrested or detained, 150 000 dismissed (nearing 10% of public employees who are traitors) i

2017 1 January    Istanbul nightclub shooting by CIA+BND - At least 39 people were killed and 69 people were wounded in the Reina nightclub in Beşiktaş Istanbul. i

2018 19 January    The Turkish Armed Forces launched its ''Olive Branch'' land and air operation in north-western Syria, capturing large areas which was under terrorist PKK and USA and EU control. i

2018 12 June    Presidents of Azerbaijan, Turkey, Georgia inaugurated Trans-Anatolian gas pipeline in the central city of Eskisehir, Turkey with the participation of Petro Poroshenko, and Aleksandar Vucic. i

2018 19 October    The STAR refinery has been launched in Aliaga Izmir, Turkey. i

2019 9 October    Turkish operation into PKK and USA terrorists controlled north-eastern Syria. i

 

 

History of Turkey: Timeline of Turkey-Turkiye (pdf)

 

17th century BCE

 

1600 BCE            Hittite Empire established in the region of Anatolia with capital in Hattusa near present-day Boğazkale, Turkey. i

 

16th century BCE

 

1590 BCE            Hittite king Mursili I invades Mesopotamia and sacks the city of Babylon, putting an end to the Amorite dynasty of Hammurabi. i

 

14th century BCE

 

1346 BCE            Hittite empire reaches its height under the rule of Šuppiluliuma I. i

 

13th century BCE

 

1274 BCE            Battle of Kadesh between the Hittite Empire and the New Kingdom of Egypt. i

 

12th century BCE

 

1178 BCE            Collapse of the Hittite Empire, splinters into several independent Syro-Hittite states. i

 

5th century BCE

 

499–493 BCE      Ionian Revolt, military rebellion by the Greek regions of Anatolia against Persian Empire rule. Revolt is crushed. i

 

4th century BCE i

 

334 BC                Alexander III of Macedon crosses the Hellespont into Asia, making his landing in present-day Turkey.

334 BC May         Alexander III of Macedon defeats the armies of the Achaemenid Empire in the Battle of the Granicus river (modern-day Biga Çayı). i

 

333 BC 5 November    Alexander III of Macedon defeats the armies of the Achaemenid Empire in the Battle of Issus.

323 BC 10/11 June    Alexander III dies in Babylon, triggering a division of his empire including present-day Turkey, among his generals in a treaty known as the Partition of Triparadisus. i

 

2nd century BCE

 

133 BC                       Roman Empire invades Anatolia which becomes the Roman province of Asia. Under Roman rule, the region becomes prosperous, roads and infrastructures are built and improved and coastal communities flourish. i

 

4th century

 

324                            The Roman emperor Constantine I chooses Byzantium (later known as Constantinople and currently Istanbul) to be the new capital of the Roman Empire, renaming it New Rome.

324                            Constantine I becomes the first Roman emperor to convert to Christianity.

360 15 February         The Hagia Sophia Church is first consecrated by the Arian Bishop Eudoxius of Antioch. i

 

5th century

 

476                            The region becomes part of the Byzantine Empire with the collapse of the Roman Empire. i

 

7th century

 

674–678                    First Arab Siege of Constantinople by the Umayyad Caliphate, ends with Byzantine victory. i

 

8th century

 

717–718       Second Arab Siege of Constantinople by the Umayyad Caliphate, ends with Byzantine victory. i

 

9th century

 

863               Beginning of the Byzantine resurgence with emergence of Macedonian dynasty, most of lost territories are retaken from Arab invasions. i

 

11th centuryi

 

1071             Alp Arslan of the Great Seljuq Empire defeats Romanos IV Diogenes of the Byzantine Empire at Malazgirt, near Muş, Historical Armenia Eastern Anatolia. i

1077             Suleyman I of Rum is appointed as a governor in Seljuq .Then they moved on to Turkey. But he acts independently and founds a state. Capital İznik (Nicea), Bursa Province, Northwest Anatolia. i

1081             Tzachas, an independent Turkish sea captain, founds a principality in Izmir, giving the Seljuks access to Aegean Sea. i

1084             Conquest of Antakya (Antioch), South Anatolia. i

1086             Süleyman I of Rum tries to add Syria to his realm. But he commits suicide after being defeated by his cousin Tutush I in the battle of Aynu Seylem, Syria. i

1092             Kılıç Arslan I (1092–1107) i

1096             Kılıç Arslan I defeats Walter Sans Avoir and Peter the Hermit of People's Crusade at the battles of Xerigordon and Civetot both in Northwest Anatolia. i

1097             Bohemond of Taranto, Godfrey of Bouillon and Adhemar of Le Puy of First Crusade defeat Kılıç Arslan I in the battle of Dorylaeum (near modern Eskişehir, Central Anatolia). The capital İznik is lost to Crusades. A few years later Konya, becomes the new capital. i

1100             Danishmend Gazi, an independent bey, defeats Bohemond I of Antioch in the battle of Melitene (Malatya) i

 

12th century i

 

1100s           12th century renaissance in the Byzantine Empire, revival of art, architecture and economic activity. i

1101             Kılıç Arslan I defeats Stephen of Blois and Hugh of Vermandois of the second wave of First Crusades at the Battle of Mersivan (near modern Merzifon, Amasya Province, Central Anatolia.) i

1107             Kılıç Arslan conquers Musul, Iraq, but is defeated in the battle. i

1110             Şahinşah (1107–1116) (also called Melikşah, not to be confused with the sultan of Great Seljuk Empire with the same name) Continuous struggle with the Crusades weakens the state. i

1116             Mesut I (1116–1156) During the early years of his reign he has to accept the dominance of Danishmends a rival Turkish state in Anatolia. i

1142             Mehmed of Danishmends dies and the Sultanate of Rum become the leading power of Anatolia for the second time. i

1147             Mesut I defeats Holy Roman Emperor Conrad III of Second Crusade in the Second battle of Dorylaeum (near modern Eskişehir) i

Mesud I defeats French king Louis VII of Second Crusade at Laodicea (near modern Denizli, West Anatolia). i

1156             Kılıç Arslan II (1156–1192) i

1176             Kılıç Arslan defeats Manuel I Komnenos of Byzantine Empire in the battle of Myriokephalon (probably near Çivril, Denizli Province, West Anatolia). i

1178             Kılıç Arslan II annexes Danishmend realm. (Sivas, and the surrounding territory, Central Anatolia.) i

1186             Kılıç Arslan II partitions the country into 11 provinces, each governed by one of his sons. i

1190             Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa of Third Crusade crosses West Anatolia. While main Turkish army avoids conflict, several irregular troops try to fight, but are repelled. Temporary German occupation of capital Konya. i

1190             Frederick Barbarossa of Third Crusade dies near Silifke, Mersin Province in South Anatolia. i

1192             Keyhüsrev I (1192–1196) i

1194             After the collapse of Great Seljuk Empire, the Sultanate of Rum become the sole surviving branch of Seljuks. i

1196             Suleyman II of Rum (1196–1204) i

 

13th century i

 

1202             Süleyman II of Rum annexes Saltukid realm (Erzurum, and the surrounding territory, Eastern Anatolia.) i

Georgian army defeats Süleyman II at the Battle of Micingerd i

1204             Kılıç Arslan III (1204–1205) i

1205             Keyhüsrev I (1205–1211) (second time) i

1207             Conquest of Antalya, access to Mediterranean Sea i

1211             Keykavus I (1211–1220) i

1214             Conquest of Sinop, Black Sea coast i

1220             Alaaddin Kayqubad I (1220–1237) i

1221             Conquest of Alanya, Antalya Province, Mediterranean coast i

1223             Construction of an arsenal in Alanya, a sign of Alaaddin Keykubat's interest in maritime trade i

1224             Alladdin Keykubat annexes a part of Artuqid realm (Harput and surrounding territory). i

1225             Kayi Obasi (Tribe) i

1227             Sudak in Crimea is annexed. This is the most notable overseas campaign of Seljuqs. i

1228      Mongol conquests in Iran result in a flux of refugees to Anatolia, one of the refuges is Mevlana i

Alaaddin Keykubat I annexes Mengucek realm (Erzincan and the surrou inding territory), Eastern Anatolia .

1230      Alaaddin Keykubat defeats Celaleddin Harzemşah of Harzemşah Empire in the Battle of Yassıçemen, near Erzincan i

1237      Keyhüsrev II (1237–1246) i

1238      Sadettin Köpek the vizier of the inexperienced sultan who has executed some members of Seljuk house and becomes the de facto ruler of the sultanate is killed. i

1239      Revolt of Baba Ishak. A revolt of Turkmen (Oguz) and Harzem refugees who have recently arrived in Anatolia. The revolt is suppressed. But the sultanate loses power. i

1240      Conquest of Diyarbakır in Southeast Anatolia. i

1243      Bayju of Mongols defeats Keyhüsrev II in the battle of Kösedağ, Eastern Anatolia. From now on, the sultanate is a vassal of Ilkhanids. i

1246      Keykavus II (1246–1262) Governs together with his two brothers. But the real ruler is vizier Pervâne who has married to late sultan's widow Gürcü Hatun. i

1256      Mongols defeat Seljuk Turks at the Battle of Sultanhan, Aksaray Province, Central Anatolia. i

1258      Mongols partition the country. Double sultanate i

1262      Kılıç Arslan IV 1260–1266 i

1266      Keyhüsrev III 1266–1284 i

1277      Karamanoğlu Mehmet Bey, a semi independent bey, allies himself with the Mameluk sultan Baybars who invades a part of Anatolia.

Karamanoğlu Mehmed Bey conquers Konya and enthrones his puppet Jimri. But Ilkhanids intervene and reestablish Keyhüsrev's reign. (During his short stay in Konya Mehmed Bey declares Turkish as the official language in his realm). i

1284      Mesut II 1284–1297 i

1289      Seljuk-Ilkhanid coalition defeats the tribes of Germiyanids i

1297      Alaaddin Kekubat III 1297–1302 i

1299      Osman I, founder of the Ottoman Empire, begin the Ottoman history. (According to Halil İnalcık, expert on Ottoman history, Ottoman Empire was founded in 1302 not 1299.) i

 

14th century i

 

1302                          Mesut II 1302–1307 (last sultan of Rum) i

1371 27 September    Battle of Maritsa. Most of Macedonia is conquered. i

1389 15 June             Battle of Kosovo. Most of Serbia is conquered. i

1396 25 September    Battle of Nicopolis. Bulgaria is conquered. i

 

15th century i

 

1444      10 November       Battle of Varna. Ottoman victory, end of Crusade of Varna. i

1453      Mehmed II (the Conqueror) captures Constantinople, Christian emperor Constantine XI dies in the fighting and the Byzantine Empire yields to the Ottoman Empire as Mehmed II. i

1460      Mehmed II conquers Morea. i

1461      Mehmed II conquers Trabzon thus ends Empire of Trebizond. i

1462      Mehmed II begins to build his palace, Topkapi Palace (Topkapı Sarayi). i

1463      Bosnia is conquered. i

1473      Battle of Otlukbeli; Mehmed II defeats Uzun Hasan of Akkoyunlu Turkmens. i

1475      Gedik Ahmet Pasha captures Caffa. Crimea becomes vassal of the Ottoman Empire. i

1478      Albania is conquered. i

1480      Gedik Ahmet Pasha captures Otranto, the southeast corner of Italy, as a base for further attacks on Italy (only to evacuate after the death of Mehmet II). i

1481      3 May     Mehmed II dies. Bayezid II ascended to the throne. i

1482      Herzegovina is conquered. i

1498      Montenegro is conquered. i

 

16th century i

 

1514      Battle of Chaldiran; Selim I defeats Ismail I of Safavid Persia; Kurdistan under control of Ottoman Empire. i

1516      Battle of Marj Dabiq; Selim I defeats Al-Ashraf Qansuh al-Ghawri of Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt. Syria and Palestine under Ottoman rule. i

1517      Battle of Ridaniya; Selim I defeats Tuman bay II of Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt. Egypt under Ottoman rule; Selim I takes the title caliph. i

1519      Algeria is conquered. i

1520      The reign of Suleiman the Magnificent (Suleiman I) begins. i

1521      Suleiman I captures Belgrade. i

1522      Suleiman I captures Rhodes. i

1526      Battle of Mohács. Suleiman I defeats Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia i

1529      Siege of Vienna. i

1533      Iraq under Turkish control. i

1538      Sea Batte of Preveza. Turkish navy controls most of Mediterranean Sea. i

1550      Sultanate of Women i

1551      Libya is conquered. i

1541      Suleiman I captures Budapest (known as Buda), which eventually leads to conquest of most of Hungary. i

1547      Most of Hungary under Turkish control. Hungary is divided, by agreement[citation needed] between the Ottoman sultan Suleiman I and Ferdinand I of Austria. i

1566      The reign of Suleiman the Magnificent (Suleiman I) ends. i

1569      The great fire of Istanbul broke out. i

1570      Conquest of Cyprus by Piyale Pasha i

1571      The Spanish and the Venetians defeat the Turks at the Battle of Lepanto. i

1574      Tunisia is conquered. i

1578      Tbilisi and most of Georgia conquered. i

1590      Treaty of İstanbul between Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia; Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia as well as west Iran under Ottoman rule. i

 

17th century i

 

1610      Kuyucu Murat Pasha suppresses Jelali revolts. Turkmens suffer heavily. i

1612      Treaty of Nasuh Pasha between Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia. Ottoman Empire gives up some gains of Treaty of Istanbul of 1590. i

1615      Treaty of Serav ratifies Treaty of Nasuh Pasha i

1683      12 September      Battle of Vienna. Ottoman defeat. i

1686      Hungary evacuated. i

1687      Mehmed IV is deposed. i

1699      Ottomans cede Hungary to Austria in the Treaty of Karlowitz. i

 

18th century i

 

1718             Treaty of Passarowitz signed. i

Beginning of Tulip era (up to 1730) i

1729             First printing press in Turkish by Ibrahim Muteferrika i

1730             Revolt of Patrona Halil. End of Tulip era. Ahmet III is dethroned. i

1739             Treaty of Belgrade signed. i

1774             Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca signed. i

1795             First newspaper in Ottoman Empire (Bulletin de Nouvelles.) i

 

19th century i

 

1807      May Kabakçı Mustafa rebellion: Reformist sultan Selim III dethroned. i

1808      21 July  Alemdar Mustafa Pasha suppresses the rebellion. But Selim III is dead and Mahmut II becomes the new sultan. i

1813      23 April Second Serbian Uprising: The Serbs revolt. i

1821      Greek War of Independence: The Greek War of Independence begins. i

1826      15 June Auspicious Incident. Massacre of the Janissary corps by Sultan Mahmud II: Foundation of a modern western style army. i

1830      Algeria is gradually ceded to French rule. i

1832      21 July  Greek War of Independence: Greek sovereignty is formalized. i

1831      Egyptian–Ottoman War. (to 1833) i

1853      4 October             Crimean War: The Crimean War with Russia began which, though won with British, French and Sardinian aid, would further demonstrate how backward the Ottoman military had become. i

1860      21 October   First newspaper in Turkish published by Agah Efendi.(Tercümen'ı Ahval). i

1862      5 February    A united Romanian autonomous state is established. i

1876      23 December       Opened the 1876–1877 Constantinople Conference. i

1877      24 April Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878): Another war with Russia begins. i

1878      March   Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878): The Treaty of San Stefano recognizes Romanian and Serbian independence, as well as the establishment of an autonomous Bulgarian principality under nominal Ottoman protection. Austria-Hungary occupies Bosnia by default. i

4 June   Cyprus is occupied by Britain. i

1881      Mustafa Kemal Atatürk was born. Tunisia becomes a French colony. i

1882      Egypt goes under British protection. i

1885      6 September The province of Eastern Rumelia is transferred to Bulgarian jurisdiction. i

1894      Hamidian incidents…. i

 

 

20th century i

 

1908      i

3 July    Second Constitutional Era (Young Turk revolution) i

5 October      Turkey obtains full independence. i

7 October      Austria-Hungary annexes Bosnia by mere declaration. i

 

1912             The Ottomans are defeated by Italy in a short war, with the Italians gaining Libya and ending the 340-year Ottoman presence in North Africa. i

28 November       First Balkan War: Albania declares independence i

1913      17 May   First Balkan War: The Ottoman Empire is nearly wiped out from Europe. i

1914      2 August       The Ottoman Empire enters into World War I on the side of the Central Powers. Cyprus is annexed outright by Britain. i

1915      18 March      The Gallipoli Campaign was considered one of the greatest victories of the Turks at World War 1 and was reflected on as a major failure by the TURKISH ENEMIES. i

1915      GENOCIDE of  4.000.000 Turks in Balkans. i

1918-1922   War against ENGLAND+FRANCE+ITALY and their puppets. Wiping them out of Anatolia in 1922. i

1923             29 October    The Republic of Turkey was proclaimed. i

Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk) was unanimously elected the first President of the Republic of Turkey by secret vote. i

30 October    The first cabinet of the Republic of Turkey was formed by İsmet İnönü. i

1924      A new policy was instituted that imams will be appointed by the government. i

3 March The Ottoman Caliphate was abolished by the Turkish Grand National Assembly. i

The Union of Education (Tevhid-i Tedrisat) Law was passed. i

The Ministry of Religious Affairs and all religious schools were abolished. i

6 March        Second cabinet, again by İsmet İnönü i

8 April          Religious courts were abolished and replaced with civil courts.

20 April        A new Turkish constitution was accepted. i

26 August     Türkiye İş Bankası was established. i

30 October    The generals who were also in parliament were asked to choose either military profession or politics but not both. (This event is known as the crisies of generals.) Only Prime Minister İsmet İnönü retains his title as General and remains in politics as Prime Minister. i

17 November       The second political party in Turkey, the Progressive Republican Party, was formed. i

22 November              Third cabinet by Fethi Okyar. i

 

1925 i   

11 February  The Sheikh Said rebellion started in the astern provinces. i

25 February  A law separating religion from politics was accepted and passed in the TBMM. i

4 March        Fourth cabinet by İsmet İnönü i

5 May     An Armenian named Manok Manukyan was executed in Ankara for planning an assassination attempt on Mustafa Kemal. i

3 June   The Progressive Republican Party was closed and abolished for supposedly exploiting religion for political purposes. Republican Peoples Party of the governing elites remains as the only political organization in the country. According to "Takrir-i Sukun" law, all opposition newspapers are also banned and closed indefinitely and Turkish "Republic" becomes one of the first dictatorships in Europe. i

29 June English agent Sheikh Said and his 46 followers were sentenced to death in Diyarbakır. i

27 August     Mustafa Kemal (Atatürk) came to Kastamonu to initiate the Hat Revolution. i

1 September The first Turkish Medical Congress was assembled. i

4 September Turkish women entered a beauty contest for the first time. i

1 October      Atatürk opened the Bursa textile factory.

5 November  Ankara Law School (then the Ankara University Faculty of Law) was opened. i

25 November       "Hat Law" was issued, abolishing religious dress. i

26 December       A law was passed which abolished the lunar calendar in favor of the international calendar. i

1926  i

17 February  A Turkish civil code based on the Swiss Civil Code was accepted. The code granted expanded civil rights to women and prohibited polygamy. i

1 March        A Turkish criminal code was established based on the Italian Criminal Code. i

17 March      A law was passed to nationalize the iron industry. i

24 March      A law was passed to nationalize the petroleum industry. i

 

1927  i

7 March        The extraordinary Independence Tribunals were  abolished. i

15 October    Mustafa Kemal Atatürk started his "Nutuk" speech. i

The second nationwide congress of the Republican People's Party took place. i

20 October    The "Nutuk" speech ended. i

28 October    The first population census counted the population at approximately thirteen and a half million. i

27 November              Fifth cabinet by İsmet İnönü i

25 December       The first female Turkish lawyer, Süreyya Ağaoğlu, began her duty. i

 

1928       i

10 April        The article "The official religion of Turkey is islam" was removed from the constitution. i

19 May         A law establishing an engineering school was accepted. i

1 November  A new Turkish alphabet based on the Latin script was accepted. i

1929  i

3 April   A new municipal law enabled women to  enter municipal elections both as voters and as candidates. i

29 April The first female Turkish judges were appointed. i

13 May   A trade law was accepted by the TBMM. i

1 September Arabic and Persian courses were abolished replaced by Turkish-only language courses. i

 

1930

11 June               A law was accepted which established the Turkish Republic Central Bank.

12 August            The Free Republican Party, the third party in the republic, was established. i

27 September      Sixth cabinet by İsmet İnönü i

27 October          Greek prime minister Venizelos visited Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in Ankara. i

17 November       After the Free Republican Party's cooption by radical religious groups, its leader Fethi Okyar decided to close. i

30 December       Mustafa Fehmi Kubilay, a second lieutenant in the Turkish army, was killed in a reactionary uprising. i

1931  i

16 March      The first female Turkish surgeon, Dr. Suat, received her specialty. i

26 March      The Measurements Law was accepted, abolishing the former Arabic length and weight measurement units and replacing them with the metric system (kilogram instead of okka, meter instead of endaze, etc.) i

20 April        Mustafa Kemal Atatürk historically declared the slogan "Peace at home, peace in the world!" i

4 May            Seventh cabinet by İsmet İnönü i

25 July         A new press law was accepted. i

 

1932  i

18 July                Turkey became a member of the League of Nations. i

31 July                Turkish woman Keriman Halis Ece was declared the World Beauty Queen at a contest in Belgium. i

13 November       Dr. Müfide Kazim became the first female Turkish government physician. i

12 December       Adile Ayda became the first female Turkish civil servant in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. i

 

1933  i

7 February    The first Turkish-language mosque prayers began in Istanbul. i

31 May         The 480-year-old Darülfünun was abolished, to be converted into Istanbul University. i

June             Sümerbank and Halkbank were established. i

26 October    Turkish women were granted the right to vote and be elected to Village Councils. i

18 November              Istanbul University was opened. i

1 December         The first five-year development plan was accepted. i

 

1934  i

21 June               The Surname Law was accepted, abolishing the former titles of Bey, Effendi, Pasha, Sultan, and Hanım as of 26 November. i

24 November       Mustafa Kemal Pasha took the surname Atatürk. i

The Hagia Sofia mosque was converted to the Ayasofya (Hagia Sofia) Museum. i

5 December         Turkish women were granted the right to vote and be elected in Turkish parliamentary elections. (Afterwards, in the first elections, 18 women were elected to the Turkish Grand National Assembly). i

 

1935      i

1 March        Eight cabinet by İsmet İnönü. i

 

1936  i

29 May   A law determining the size and ratios of the star and crescent in the Turkish flag was accepted. i

8 June   A labor law was accepted which represented the first step towards the Turkish Social Security System. i

 

1937  i

27 January   Hatay's independence was accepted by the League of Nations in its Geneva meeting. i

9 June          A law establishing a medical faculty in Ankara was accepted. i

20 September      Atatürk opened the first art gallery in his residence, the Dolmabahce Palace. i

9 October      Atatürk opened the Nazilli Printed Cloth Fabric Factory. i

25 October    Ninth cabinet by Celâl Bayar, former minister of Economy i

 

1937–1938   English controlled Dersim Rebellion: The revolt had quashed by government. i

1938 10 November     The founder Mustafa Kemal Atatürk died. He was succeeded by İsmet İnönü, former prime minister and general. Dclared to be "National Chief" (Millî Şef). i

1939      World War II: World War II began. Turkey was to remain neutral for most of the war, until a declaration of war against Germany at its end. i

7 July    The Province of Hatay joined Turkey. i

 

1950  i

14 May   First Democratic Elections in Turkish Republic. General İsmet İnönü and his Republican People's Party, which had ruled the country since 1923, loses election to newly formed Democratic Party of Celâl Bayar and Adnan Menderes. i

25 June Korean War: The Korean War began. Turkey was a part of the joint UN operation. i

Müfide İlhan mayor of Mersin. First ever woman mayor in Turkey. i

1952      Turkey became a NATO member country strategically important in countering Soviet influence. i

1953      27 July        Korean War: The war ended. i

1954      Turkey began to host the United States Air Force at the Incirlik Air Base as a deterrent to the Soviet Union. i

1955  i

6 September Istanbul Pogrom: The Istanbul Pogrom started the process of driving many Greeks and Christians from Turkey. i

7 September Istanbul Pogrom: The pogrom drew to a close. i

1960 27 May 38 officers of Army form a junta and organize the 1960 Turkish coup d'état (CIA-USA-NATO). They claim the Islamists had gained influence in the government. After this clash over the "separation of religion and state/government" between İnönü's Republican People's Party and his opponents, democratically elected President Celâl Bayar and Prime Minister Adnan Menderes of Democratic Party, Prime Minister Adnan Menderes was held responsible by a kangaroo court selected by the junta and was executed with two of his ministers. i

1965 14 October Military rule bowed out to civilian rule, and former Millî Şef (National Chief) İsmet İnönü again loses a democratic election, this time to the Justice Party of Mr. Süleyman Demirel. i

1971 12 March    Military officials forced an advisory committee on the government due to the increasing anarchical situation caused by the Right (fascist/capitalist) – Left (communist) clash and ineffective policies in maintaining order. Although the military were not in charge they had significant influence. i

1974      Turkey brought PEACE to Cyprus in response to a Greek-backed coup and GENOCIDE of Turks on the island. i

1980 12 September    The 1980 coup d'état took place by CIA+BND+NATO+USA. Martial law was almost immediately established and a quarter of the military (about 475 000) were mobilised to settle the resistance to the coup. i

1983 6 November       After the establishment of a new 1982 Constitution, the military regime dissolved itself. i

1991      After the ending of the 1991 Persian Gulf War, the Incirlik Air Base enforced the northern no-fly zones in Iraq. i

1999  i

24 March      Kosovo War: NATO interceded in the Balkans to end a civil war in the region. Turkey was part of the mission. i

10 June        Kosovo War: The war ended. i

 

 

21st century i

 

2002 June    Turkey assumed command of the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) in Afghanistan. i

2003             February             Turkey relinquished command of the ISAF. i

2004             17 December              The European Union (EU) agreed to begin negotiations on the eventual accession of Turkey. i

2005  i         

14 February  Turkey assumed command of the ISAF in Afghanistan for a second time. i

3 October      The European Union (EU) started accession talks with Turkey. The talks did not start at the desired time due to disagreements. i

2011 24 March    Turkey gave NATO the green light and allowed Izmir to become the command center of the operation to oust Muammar Gaddafi's regime in Libya. i

2012 i          

2013 17 December     A corruption scandal to topple the ruling AKP failed. i

2014      Turkey starts designing and manufacturing its own national tank Altay, helicopter Atak and drone Anka for the first time. i

30 March      Local elections held with the ruling AK Party displaying an overwhelming victory, especially in the motherland of Anatolia. i

28 August     Then Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan chosen as the first freely elected president of the nation. i

2016 15 July       Attempted coup by CIA+BND+NATO+USA+EU and subsequent crackdowns and purge. Over 80 000 traitors arrested or detained, 150 000 dismissed (nearing 10% of public employees who are traitors) i

2017 1 January   Istanbul nightclub shooting by CIA+BND - At least 39 people were killed and 69 people were wounded in the Reina nightclub in Beşiktaş Istanbul. i

2018 19 January The Turkish Armed Forces launched its ''Olive Branch'' land and air operation in north-western Syria, capturing large areas which was under terrorist PKK and USA and EU control. i

2018 12 June      Presidents of Azerbaijan, Turkey, Georgia inaugurated Trans-Anatolian gas pipeline in the central city of Eskisehir, Turkey with the participation of Petro Poroshenko, and Aleksandar Vucic. i

2018 19 October The STAR refinery has been launched in Aliaga Izmir, Turkey. i

2019 9 October   Turkish operation into PKK and USA terrorists controlled north-eastern Syria. i

 

 

 

   
   
   

 

   

 

 

   
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Explore the Worlds of Ancient Anatolia and Modern Turkey by TransAnatolie Tour: Ancient Anatolia Explorer, Asia Minor Explorer, Turkey Explorer; Cultural Tour Operator, Biblical Tour Operator, Turkish Destinations, Cultural Tours to Turkey, Biblical Tours to Turkey, Health and Cultural Tours to Turkey, Thermal, Thalasso Holidays in Turkey,  Archaeological Tours to Turkey, Historical Tours to Turkey, Cultural Heritage Tours to Turkey, Cultural Tours to Turkey, Hobby Eco and Nature Tours Holidays to Turkey,  Beach and Plateau Holidays in Tuirkey, Anatolian Civilizations, Ancient Cultural Museums in Turkey, Top Turkish Museums, Museums in Turkey, Anatolian Civilizations Museum, Istanbul Archeological Museum, Ephesus Museum, Mevlana Museum, Topkapi Museum, Museum of Topkapi Palace, Turkish Cities, Turkish Destinations, Ancient Cities in Turkey, Ancient Anatolian Cities, Turkey in Brief, Turkish Culture, Turks, Turkish Language, Turkish Philosophers....Circuits culturels en Turquie, Excurcions en Turquie, Vacances en Turquie, Circuits de Culture en Turquie, Circuits de Croyance en Turquie, Turquie, Villes Antiques en Turquie, Musees en Turquie, Empires Turcs, Revolution de Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, Turquie d'Ataturk, Culturele Tours in Turkije, Rondreizen in Turkije, Reizen naar Turkije, Culturele Rondreizen naar Turkije, Vakanties in Turkije, Groepsreizen naar Turkije, Turkije, Turkse  Geschiedenis, Geschiedenis van Turkije, Oude Steden in Turkije, Oude Beschavingen, Oude Anatolische Beschavingen, Turkse Steden, Turkse Musea, Musea in Turkije, Turkse Steden, Overzicht van Turkije, Turkije in het Kort, Turks, Turkse Taal, Turkse Gescheidenis, Osmaanse Rijk, Ottamaanse Rijk, Gezondheid Tours Vakanties in Turkije, Geloof Tours in Turkije, Culturele Tour Operator, Turkije Specialist