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Cilicia

 

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Lampron

  Adana (Cilicia)

Situated in the middle of the Cukurova Plain (Cilician Plain), Adana is the fourth largest city of Turkey, nestled in the most fertile agricultural area of the whole country which is fed by the lifegiving waters of River Seyhan.

The city's name originates in mythology, where it was said to have been founded by Adanus, the son of Kronus (God of Weather).

Due to its being in the heart of that fertile center Adana has been an important city for many civilizations for centuries dating back to the Hittites. The precious River Seyhan is spanned by the ancient Taskopru (Stone Bridge) which was built by Hadrian and then repaired by Justinian. It is worth noting that to built a 300 yards long stone bridge in Roman times was a real feat.

In the city, the 16thcentury Great Mosque (Ulu Camii), the Yag or Eski Mosque, the Hasan Aga Mosque, Saat Kulesi (the clock-tower) built in 1882, an old covered bazaar, Bedesten or Arasta are of interest. Also be sure to see the Ethnographical Museum where Turkish carpets, swords, manuscript books and tombstones are exhibited. The building itself is interesting as well since it was built as a church by the Crusaders. The Adana Archaeological Museum merits visiting too. Adana is also famous for its delicious Adana Kebap.

The tea houses and restaurants alongside the Seyhan Dam and Lake provide a cool and perfect view of the city and the river at sunsets.

Yumurtalik (84 kms from Adana) and Karatas (50 kms from Adana)are the nearest beaches with proper accommodation. In Yumurtalik there is an ancient harbour castle contributing much to this pretty fishing city. For fishing, there is Camlik Park 30 kms southwest of Adana.

There are some ancient cities on the road to Iskenderun which include Roman remnants. Misis is on the caravan route that came from China, India and Persia. Among the remains of Roman times, the most interesting is the elegant mosaic of the 4th century A.D representing Noah's Ark. Yilanlikale has the ruins of a fortress set atop a peak dominating the River Ceyhan. Dilekkaya, the ancient Anavarza, was an important RomanByzantine city which still preserves the outline of the old city including two particularly worthwhile mosaics. Karatepe National Park is the neoHittite site where you will find the remains of the summer residence of King Asitawada, tablets of Hittite and Phoenician inscriptions, and an openair museum holding many remnants. Castabala and Toprakkale are the other historical remains. Karsanb Forest, Burucek, Tekir, Horzum, Zorkum meadows are ideal for picnicking and resting.

Time Line of Cilicia

The south coast of Anatolia northeast of Cyprus and northwest of Antioch. There are really two Cilicias; the east is a broad plain, quite fertile, while in the west the ramparts of the Taurus Mountains run right down to the sea, with the interior being quite rugged and underpopulated.

  • To the Hittites................................c. 2200-c. 1200
    • Cilix
  • Luvians (interior).............................c. 1250-c. 1000 with...
  • Achaean Greeks (coastal).......................c. 1200-c. 850 with...
    • Aetion........................................fl. c. 1200
  • Neo-Hittite states.............................c. 1000-c. 850
  • Kingdom of Que Eastern Cilicia, capital at Adana
  • Awarikku...........................................fl. c. early 800's
  • Kateh...........................................c. 850-c. 835
  • Kirri...........................................c. 835-c. 820
  • ??
  • To Assyria......................................c. 740-c. 705
    • Urikki.....................................c. 741-c. 722 d. c. 709
  • Mopsus..........................................c. 705- ?
  • To Assyria......................................c. 670-609
  • Kingdom of Hilakku Western Cilicia. "Hilakku" is the root from which "Cilicia" is derived.
  • Ambarish............................................c. 712
  • Sanduarris..........................................c. 680
  • To Assyria......................................c. 670-609
    • Sanasarris.....................................c. 650
  • To Babylonia.......................................609-539
    • Kingdom of Cilicia
    • Syennesis I...................................fl. 585
      Note that "Syennesis" appears to be a title rather than a proper name - thus, the names of this person and the two others listed below are problematic.
    • Appuwašu......................................fl. c. 546
  • To Persia..........................................539-332
    • Oromedon ?
    • Syennesis II..................................fl. 480
    • Syennesis III.................................fl. 401 with ? ...
    • Epyaxa (fem.)..................................fl. 401
    • Epyaxa is known from references to her in Xenophon's Persian Expedition, where she gives considerable aid to the rebel Cyrus. The comments about her do not explicitly state that she was a co-ruler with Syennesis III, simply that she was "Queen" - but she acted in a very independent fashion.
    • Tiribazus.....................................384-380
    • Farnabaza.....................................379-374 with...
    • Datames.......................................378-372
    • Mazda'i (Governor of Babylon 336-328).........361-336 d. 328
    • Arshama...........................................332
  • To Macedon.........................................332-316
    • Balakros......................................332-328
    • Philotus......................................323-321
    • Eumenes (satrap of Cappadocia)................321-316
  • To the Kingdom of Antigonus........................316-301
  • Pleistarchus.......................................301-298 d. 294
  • To Macedon (Demetrius the Beseiger)................298-293
  • Cassander..........................................293-285
  • To the Seleucid Empire.............................285-240
  • To Egypt...........................................240-194
  • To the Seleucid Empire.............................194-145
  • To Egypt...............................................145
  • To the Seleucid Empire.............................145-83
    • Xenophantes...................................fl. c. 100
  • To Armenia..........................................83-63
  • Tarcondimotus I Philantonius........................64-31
  • To the Roman Empire.................................31-20
  • Tarcondimotus II Philopator.....................20 BCE-17 CE
  • To the Roman Empire..............................17 CE-260
    • Antonius Polemon...............................41-72
  • To Persia..........................................260-261
  • To the Roman Empire................................261-395
  • To the Byzantine Empire............................395-637
    • Occupied by Persia...........................540, 611
  • To the Caliphate...................................637-868
  • To Egypt...........................................868-896
  • To the Caliphate...................................896-935
  • To the Byzantine Empire............................935-1071
  • To the Seljuqs....................................1071-1080
  • Kingdom of Armenia Minor Note: do not confuse with the late Classical state of the same name based at Nicopolis, west of the Euphrates.
  • Reubenid
  • Reuben I..........................................1080-1095
  • Constantine.......................................1095-1100
  • Toros I...........................................1100-1129
  • Leo I.............................................1129-1138
  • To Byzantine Empire...............................1138-1145
  • Toros II..........................................1145-1169
  • Reuben II.........................................1169-1170
  • Mleh..............................................1170-1175
  • Reuben III........................................1175-1186
  • Leo II the Great..................................1186-1219
  • Isabella (fem.)....................................1219-1252 with...
    • Adam of Baghran, regent 1219/20
    • Constantine of Lampron (Hethumid), regent 1219/20-1226 d. 1263
  • Antiochid
  • Philip............................................1222-1225 and then...
  • Hetumid (Sharabied)
  • Hetum I of Lampron (son of regent Constantine)....1226-1269
  • Leo III...........................................1269-1289
  • Hetum II..........................................1289-1293 d. 1305
  • Toros III.........................................1293-1294
  • Hetum II (restored)...............................1294-1296 d. 1305
  • Smbat.............................................1296-1298
  • Hetum II (re-restored).................................1298 d. 1305
  • Constantine II....................................1298-1299
  • Hetum II (re-re-restored).........................1299-1305
  • Leo IV............................................1305-1308
  • Oshin.............................................1308-1320
  • Leo V.............................................1320-1341
  • De Lusignan
  • Guy...............................................1342-1344
  • Hetumid
  • Constantine III...................................1344-1363
  • Constantine IV....................................1363-1373 opposed by...
  • De Lusignan
  • Peter.............................................1368-1369
  • Leo VI............................................1373-1375 d. 1393
  • Emirate of KARAMAN
  • Ramadan-Oghlu
  • Ahmad.............................................1375-1407
  • Ibrahim I.........................................1407-1416
  • 'Izz ud-Din Hamza Beg.............................1416-1419
  • Muhammad I Beg....................................1419-1436 with...
  • 'Ali Beg..........................................1419-1436
  • Arslan Daoud......................................1436-1480
  • Ghars ud-Din Khalil Beg...........................1480-1510 with...
  • Mahmud Beg........................................1480- ?
  • Piri Muhammad Pasha...............................1510-1568
  • Darwish Beg.......................................1568-1578
  • Ibrahim II Beg....................................1578-1594
  • Muhammad II.......................................1594-1608
  • To Ottoman Empire and Turkey.................................1608-1919
  • Occupied by France................................1919-1920
  • To Turkey.........................................1920-
  

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 

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Last modified: 2016-08-27
 
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