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Archaeological and Ancient Sites (Settlements) of Anatolia Turkey (TAY Project)

 
The Database of the Archaeological Settlements (Sites) of Anatolia Turkey Project

Palaeolithic/
Epipalaeolithic
Neolithic
Chalcolithic
Early
Bronze
Middle
Bronze
Late
Bronze
Iron
Ages...




Palaeolithic/Epipalaeolithic Age of Anatolia Turkey

The longest of the cultural periods, beginning from the dawn of humanity until 12,000 before present. We know that during this age, humans were using tools made from pebbles, flintstones, animal bones, wood, etc., and they were living in caves or under rock shelters as 'extended families'. They were accessing 'ready-to-consume' food through hunting and gathering; no food production was taking place yet. Fire was discovered in this age and was being used for cooking, heating and protection from wild animals. One distinguishes Lower, Middle and Upper Palaeolithic subperiods. Epipalaeolithic phase corresponds to times when humans started to control nature, just before the advent of food production. Yarimburgaz (Istanbul) and Karain (Antalya) are the most representative examples of the Palaeolithic/Epipalaeolithic sites have been discovered in Anatolia and Thrace.

Neolithic Age of Anatolia Turkey

During this age the humankind went through a transition from intensive hunting-gathering to food production, from a nomadic existence to settled communities. The Neolithic started around 10,000 BC and it is considered as a "revolutionary" period in human cultural history. During this age, many plants and animals have been domesticated; agriculture has been substituted for gathering and husbandry for hunting. Settled life that came with the food production led to the establishment of villages, and later of cities. Archaeologists divide the Neolithic into the Pre-pottery and Pottery subperiods according the technology of utensils used for the storage and preparation of food. The most significant sites in Anatolia and Thrace (based on artefacts recovered and architectural remains, as well as on the artistic and ritual creativity) are Çayönü (Diyabakir), Cafer Höyük (Malatya), Asikli Höyük (Aksaray), Kuruçay (Burdur), Çatalhöyük (Konya) and Hacilar (Burdur).

Chalcolithic Age of Anatolia Turkey

The term “Chalcolithic” is made up of two words, khalkos meaning copper and lithos meaning stone, and is also known as Copper Age due to the use of copper besides stone in tool making technology. Although the recent data has proved that the earliest use of copper dates back to the Pre-pottery Neolithic, it is widely used in this Age. This era is roughly dated to 5,000-3,000 BC and is studied in three stages as Early, Middle and Late Chalcolithic. Developments as advanced agriculture and animal husbandry accelerated the changes in the social organization of man resulting in proto-urbanization, the establishment of various social groups as priests, craftsmen, etc. and also monumental architecture as temples, ceremonial buildings, defence systems, irrigation systems, long-distance trade, trade of luxurious goods etc. Consequently, such developments ended up with 852 Chalcolithic sites in Anatolia. Bakla Tepe (Izmir), Liman Tepe (Izmir), Hacilar (Burdur), Beycesultan (Denizli), Ikiztepe (Samsun), Alisar (Yozgat), Domuztepe (Adana), Yumuktepe (Içel), Arslantepe (Malatya), Degirmentepe (Malatya) and Girikihaciyan (Diyarbakir) are among the important sites of this age to be mentioned.

Early Bronze Age of Anatolia Turkey

The Early Bronze Age of Anatolia and Thrace covers a period approximately 3.000-2.000 cal. BC. It is characterized by a network of independent city-states cantered on fortified towns and dominated by palaces and temples. During this period new social and religious ideologies, new technologies and modes of production take place. The alloying of copper with tin represents a great step forward in metallurgy. Appearance of cemeteries with rich grave goods of prestige items of gold and silver suggest the existence of division of the society. The Early Bronze Age society developed a long-distance trade which linked the Aegean, Middle East and the Balkans. The Early Bronze Age of Anatolia and Turkish Thrace is divided into 3 phases and it is represented by over a thousand settlements such as Aslantepe (Malatya), Alacahöyük (Çorum), Acemhöyük (Aksaray), Troya (Çanakkale), Karaoglan (Ankara), Alisar (Yozgat), Karahöyük (Konya), Kültepe (Kayseri), Demircihöyük (Eskisehir), Mahmatlar (Amasya), Horoztepe (Tokat), Ikiztepe (Samsun), Gözlükule (Tarsus), Beycesultan (Denizli), Semsiyetepe (Elazig), Kuruçay (Burdur).

14C (Radiocarbon)

The element carbon is present in various archaeological finds uncovered in excavations. These also contain traces of the radioactive isotope 14C (radiocarbon), the density and radioactivity of which can be measured for dating purposes. Since its discovery in 1950, radiocarbon dating has become the principal method by which archaeological, paleobotanical, and geological events of the last fifty thousand years have been definitively dated. All archaeological finds containing traces of carbon can be dated using this method. Items collected for dating are called ‘samples’. Some examples to what can be radiocarbon dated include pieces of wood, charcoal, dried plants, preserved seeds and grains, fabric and strings, animal skin and shells, bones, and food scraps. Note that all of these items are organic in nature (M. Ozbakan).

Archaeology in Anatolia (Turkey-Türkiye)

  • Palaeolithic, Neolithic, Chalcolithic
    Yarimburgaz
    Karain
    Gaziantep Area, Hatay
    Tigris Area Survey
    Çayönü
    Nevali Çori
    Asikli Höyük
    Ceramic Neolithic: Kösk Höyük-Nigde
    Coskuntepe
    Marmara Ereglisi-Toptepe
    Ilipinar
    Höyücek
    Kuruçay
    Burdur-Senirkent Area
    Eskisehir
  • Bronze Age Sites
    Kültepe
    Bogazköy
    Çorum Area
    Alaca Hüyük
    Balibagi-Çankiri
    Ikiztepe
    Acemhöyük
    Karaman-Eregli Area
    Porsuk
    Kaman-Kalehöyük
    Karahöyük-Konya
    Kütahya-Bilecik-Eskisehir
    Troy
    Besiktepe
    Troad
    Arslantepe-Malatya
    Oylum-Hüyük
    Girnavaz
    Harran
    Van-Dilkaya
    Bayburt-Kelkit
  • Euphrates Area, Salvage Excavations
    Samsat
    Tille
    Ikiztepe
    Çavi Tarlasi
    Semsiyetepe
  • Euphrates and Tigris Area Survey

    Metallurgy
    Taurus Mountains
    Acemhöyük
    Tepecik and Tülintepe
    Malatya-Arslantepe
    Weapons
  • Dendrochronology
  • Minoan and Mycenaean Sites and Finds
    Kas-Uluburun
    Cape Gelidonya
    Panaztepe
    Gavurtepe-Alasehir (Philadelphia)
    Troy

    Urartu
    Van
    Altintepe
  • Neo-Hittite and Phrygian Sites
    Karatepe
    Malpinar
    Kaman-Kalehöyük
    Gordion
    Gordion, Mama Deresi
    Gordion, Kizlarkayasi
    Phrygian Art
  • Classical, Hellenistic, and Roman Sites
    Pamphylia, Pisidia
    Perge
    Side
    Sagalassus
    Lycia
    Xanthos-Letoon
    Patara
    Limyra
    Arycanda
    Caria
    Iasos
    Labraunda
    Alabanda
    Datça Peninsula
    Knidos
    Nysa
    Aphrodisias
    Ionia
    Miletus
    Didyma
    Herakleia under Latmos
    Magnesia on the Maeander
    Ephesus
    Klaros
    Metropolis-Torbali
    Klazomenai
    Lydia
    Sardis
    Aeolis-Mysia
    Pergamon
    Phocaea
    Kyme
    Troad
    Troy
    Assos
    Smintheion-Gülpinar
    Propontis-Thrace-Bithynia
    Prokonnesos: Saraylar
    Daskyleion
    Kyzikos
    Phrygia
    Aizanoi
    Pessinus
    Amorium
    Docimium
    Hierapolis
    Cappadocia
    Kayseri Tumuli
    Cilicia
    Meydancik
    Kelenderis
    Rock Reliefs
    Tarsus: Donuk Tas
    Pontus
    Satala

References and Useful Links

  • Archaeological Settlements (Sites) of Anatolia Turkey-TAY
  • Dept. of Archaeology-Hacettepe University
  • Dept. of Archaeology-Ankara University
  • University of New England-Current Archaeology in Turkey
  • Anatolian Iron Age Ceramics Project
  • Archaelogy's Interactive Dig
  • Deutsches Archaologisches Institut
  • Osterreichisches Archaologisches Institut
  • Ausgrabungen in Milet
  • Misart Italy
  • Project Troia
  • Hattuscha
  • The Neolithic site of Çatalhöyük
  • Acemhoyuk
  • UNESCO's Memory of the World
  • Unesco World Heritage List
  • Unesco World Heritage List-Turkey
  • The Page of Nazli Evrim Serifoglu
  • Archaeology
  • Archaeology Dictionary - Index
  • Institutum Turcicum-Scientiae Antiquitatis (Tűrk Eskiçağ Bilimler Ensititüsi-TEBE)
  • TEBE Useful Links
 

 

 

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