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Sultans & Viziers

 

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Fatih Sultan Mehmed
Suleiman the Magnificent

Sultans of the Ottoman Empire
   

From Osman Ghazi to Mehmed The Conqueror From Orhan Ghazi to Sultan Bayezid 2 From Murat Hüdavendigar to Yavuz Sultan Selim

The ancestors of the Ottomans (Osmanli, Uthmanli) were Oguz Turks who followed the victorious Seljuqs into Anatolia in the 11th century. The Ottoman state began as a Ghazi Kingdom based in Bursa (old Bithynia), on the fringes of the Mongol dominated regions of central Anatolia. As Ilkhanate authority waned, Ottoman power grew and, successfully vanquishing other Ghazi domains, they became the new Power of the region.

From Yıldırım Bayezid to Süleyman The Magnificent From Çelebi Sultan Mehmed to Sultan Selim 2 From Sultan Murad 2 to Sultan Murad 3

  • Osman I..........................................1293-1324
  • Orhan............................................1324-1360
  • Murad I...........................................1360-1389
  • Beyazid I Thunderbolt.............................1389-1402
  • Mehmet I........................................1402-1421 with...
  • Isa (in Bursa)....................................1402-1406 and...
  • Suleyman (in Rumelia).............................1402-1410 followed by...
  • Musa..............................................1410-1413
  • Murad II..........................................1421-1444 d. 1451
  • Mehmet II the Conqueror.........................1444-1446 d. 1481
  • Murad II (restored)...............................1446-1451
  • Mehmet II the Conqueror (restored)..............1451-1481
  • Beyazid II........................................1481-1512
  • Selim I the Grim..................................1512-1520
  • Suleyman I Law-giver..............................1520-1566
  • Selim II the Sot..................................1566-1574
  • Murad III.........................................1574-1595
  • Mehmet III......................................1695-1603
  • Ahmed I...........................................1603-1617
  • Mustafa I.........................................1617-1618 d. 1623
  • Osman II.........................................1618-1622
  • Mustafa I (restored)..............................1622-1623
  • Murad IV..........................................1623-1640
  • Ibrahim...........................................1640-1648
  • Mehmet IV.......................................1648-1687 d. 1693
  • Suleyman II.......................................1687-1691
  • Ahmed II..........................................1691-1695
  • Mustafa II........................................1695-1703
  • Ahmed III.........................................1703-1730 d. 1736
  • Mahmud I..........................................1730-1754
  • Osman III........................................1754-1757
  • Mustafa III.......................................1757-1773
  • Abdulhamid I......................................1773-1789
  • Selim III.........................................1789-1807
  • Mustafa III.......................................1807-1808
  • Mahmud II.........................................1808-1839
  • Abdulmecid........................................1839-1861
  • Abdulaziz.........................................1861-1876
  • Murad V................................................1876
  • Abdulhamid II.....................................1876-1909 d. 1918
  • Mehmet V........................................1909-1918
  • Mehmet VI.......................................1918-1922 d. 1926
  • Republic of Turkey................................1922-
   
Grand Viziers of the Ottoman Empire (Pervane or Vizir-i-Azam) 
   

The Grand Viziers were the highest-ranking bureaucrats in the Ottoman Empire. They were the heads of the Sultan's divan, or council, and held meetings every four days to assess the state of the empire, pass legislation, and issue decrees (these meetings were only rarely attended by the Sultan). Except in rare cases of exceptionally strong-willed Sultans, the Grand Viziers were the true rulers of the Ottoman state (much as the Mayors of the Palace were the power behind the Frankish throne). Many of the Grand Viziers were commoners, and quite a few were of non-Turkish origin, a testement to the meritocratic nature of Ottoman society.

  • Aladdin Pasha.....................................1323-1331
  • Suleyman Pasha....................................1331-1340
  • Mahmudoglu Nizam ud-Din Ahmed Pasha..............1340-1348
  • Khadzhi Pasha.....................................1348-1360
  • Sinanuddin Yusuf Pasha............................1360-1368
  • Chandarli-Khayruddin Kara-Khalil Pasha............1368-1387
  • Chandarli-Ali Pasha...............................1387-1406
  • Osmancikli Imamzade Kara-Khalil Pasha............1406- ?
  • Chandarli-Ibrahim Pasha............................ ? -1418
  • Amasyali Bayezid Pasha............................1418-1429
  • Chandarli-Ibrahim Pasha (restored ?)..............1429-1436
  • Amasyali Khizir-Danishmand........................1436-1437
  • Mehmed Nizamuddin Pasha...........................1437-1439
  • Chandarli Khalil Pasha Fakr ad-Din................1439-1453
  • Mahmud Pasha......................................1453-1466
  • Rum-Mehmed Pasha..................................1468-1469
  • Isaq Pasha........................................1469-1472
  • Mahmud Pasha (restored)...........................1472-1474
  • Gedik-Ahmed Pasha.................................1474-1477
  • Karamani-Mehmed Pasha.............................1477-1481
  • Isaq Pasha (restored).............................1481-1482
  • Davud Pasha.......................................1482-1497
  • Khersekzade Ahmed Pasha...........................1497-1498
  • Chandarli-Ibrahim Pasha...........................1498-1499
  • Mesikh Pasha......................................1499-1501
  • Khadim Ali Pasha..................................1501-1503
  • Khersekzade Ahmed Pasha (restored)................1503-1506
  • Khadim-Ali Pasha (restored).......................1506-1511
  • Khersekzade Ahmed Pasha (re-restored)..................1511
  • Khodzha-Mustafa Pasha.............................1511-1512
  • Khersekzade Ahmed Pasha (re-re-restored)..........1512-1514
  • Dukaginoghlu Ahmed Pasha..........................1514-1515
  • Khersekzade Ahmed Pasha (re-re-re-restored).......1515-1516
  • Khadim-Sinan Pasha................................1516-1517
  • Yunus Pasha Devshirme..................................1517
  • Pili-Mehmed Pasha.................................1518-1523
  • Maktul-Ibrahim Pasha..............................1523-1536
  • Ayas-Mehmed Pasha.................................1536-1539
  • Lyutfi Pasha Chelebi..............................1539-1541
  • Khadim-Suleyman Pasha.............................1541-1544
  • Kekhle-i-Ikbal Rustem Fenarizade Mukhyiddin.......1544-1553
  • Kara-Ahmed Pasha..................................1553-1555
  • Sokulu Pasha......................................1555-1561
  • Semiz-Ali Pasha...................................1561-1565
  • Sokulu-Mehmed Pasha...............................1565-1579
  • Ahmed Pasha.......................................1579-1580
  • Koca Sinan Pasha..................................1580-1582
  • Wali of Cairo, late 1560's and early 1580's; Wali of Damascus 1580's-1590's.
  • Siyavush Pasha....................................1582-1584
  • Osman Pasha.......................................1584-1585
  • Mesih Pasha.......................................1585-1586
  • Siyavush Pasha (restored).........................1586-1589
  • Koca Sinan Pasha (restored).......................1589-1591
  • Ferhat Pasha......................................1591-1592
  • Siyavush Pasha (re-restored)......................1592-1593
  • Koca Sinan Pasha (re-restored)....................1593-1595
  • Ferhat Pasha (restored)................................1595
  • Koca Sinan Pasha (re-re-restored)......................1595
  • Lala Mustafa Pasha.....................................1595
  • Koca Sinan Pasha (re-re-re-restored)..............1595-1596
  • Damad Ibrahim Pasha...............................1596-1596
  • Cigalazade (Cagaloglu) Sinan Pasha.....................1596
  • Damad Ibrahim Pasha (restored)....................1596-1597
  • Hasan (Hadim) Pasha...............................1597-1598
  • Cerrah Mehmed Pasha...............................1598-1599
  • Damad (Damat) Ibrahim Pasha (re-restored).........1599-1601
  • Yemishçi Hasan Pasha..............................1601-1603
  • Malkoç Ali Pasha..................................1603-1604
  • Lala Mehmed Pasha.................................1604-1606
  • Dervish Pasha..........................................1606
  • Kuyucu Murad Pasha................................1606-1611
  • Nasuh Pasha.......................................1611-1614
  • Öküz Kara Mehmed Pasha............................1614-1616
  • Halil Pasha.......................................1616-1619
  • Öküz Kara Mehmed Pasha (restored)......................1619
  • Güzelce Ali Pasha.................................1619-1621
  • Ohrili Hüseyin Pasha...................................1621
  • Dilaver Pasha.....................................1621-1622
  • Kara Davut Pasha.......................................1622
  • Mere Hüseyin Pasha.....................................1622
  • Lefkeli Mehmed Pasha...................................1622
  • Gürcü Mehmed Pasha................................1622-1623
  • Mere Hüseyin Pasha (restored)..........................1623
  • Kemankes Kara Ali Pasha...........................1623-1624
  • Çerkes Mehmed Ali Pasha...........................1624-1625
  • Müezzin Zade Hafiz Ahmed Pasha....................1625-1626
  • Halil Pasha (restored)............................1626-1628
  • Ekrem Hüsrev Pasha................................1628-1631
  • Müezzin Zade Hafiz Ahmed Pasha (restored).........1631-1632
  • Topal Recep Pasha......................................1632
  • Tabani Yassi Mehmed Pasha.........................1632-1637
  • Bayram Pasha......................................1637-1638
  • Tayyar Mehmed Pasha....................................1638
  • Kemankesh Kara Mustafa Pasha......................1638-1644
  • Semin Mehmed Pasha................................1644-1645
  • Basdefterdar Salih Pasha..........................1645-1647
  • Ahmed Hezarpara Pasha.............................1647-1648
  • Sofu Mehmed Pasha.................................1648-1649
  • Kara Murad Pasha..................................1649-1651
  • Melek Ahmed Pasha.................................1651-1651
  • Siyavush Pasha.........................................1651
  • Gürcü Ahmed (Mehmed ?) Pasha......................1651-1652
  • Tarhuncu Ahmed Pasha..............................1652-1653
  • Dervish Mehmed Pasha..............................1653-1654
  • Ipshir (Ibsir) Mustafa Pasha......................1654-1655
  • Kara Murad Pasha (restored)............................1655
  • Ermeni Suleyman Pasha.............................1655-1656
  • Gazi Deli Hüseyin Pasha................................1656
  • Zurnazzen Mustafa Pasha................................1656
  • Uneasy lies the head... Zurnazzen held the office for a mere four hours, surely some kind of record.
  • Siyavush Pasha (restored)..............................1656
  • Boynuegri Mehmed Pasha............................1656-1657
  • Köprülü Muhammad Pasha............................1657-1661
  • Köprülü Fazil Ahmed Pasha.........................1661-1674
  • Merzifonlu Kara Mustafa Pasha.....................1674-1683
  • Kara Ibrahim Pasha................................1683-1685
  • Silahdar (Sari) Süleyman Pasha....................1685-1687
  • Siyavush Pasha....................................1687-1688
  • Nisanci Ismail Pasha...................................1688
  • Tekirdagli Bekri Mustafa Pasha....................1688-1689
  • Koprulu Fazil Mustafa Pasha.......................1689-1691
  • Kadi (Arabaci) Ali Pasha..........................1691-1692
  • Haci (Çalik or Elhadj) Ali Pasha..................1692-1693
  • Bozoklu Biyikli (Büklü) Mustafa Pasha.............1693-1694
  • Ali Pasha Sürmeli (Defterdar).....................1694-1695
  • Elmas Mehmed Pasha................................1695-1697
  • Amcazade Hüseyin Pasha............................1697-1702
  • Daltaban Mustafa Pasha............................1702-1703
  • Rami Mehmed Pasha......................................1703 d. 1706
  • Kavanoz Nisanci Ahmed Pasha............................1703 d. 1705
  • Damad Hasan Pasha.................................1703-1704 d. 1713
  • Kalaylikoz Haci Ahmed Pasha............................1704 d. 1715
  • Baltaci Mehmed Pasha..............................1704-1706 d. 1712
  • Damad Çorlulu Ali Pasha...........................1706-1710 d. 1711
  • Köprülüzade Damad Numan Pasha..........................1710 d. 1719
  • Baltaci Mehmed Pasha (restored)...................1710-1711
  • Aga Yusuf Pasha...................................1711-1712 d. 1714
  • Silahdar Süleyman Pasha (re-restored).............1712-1713
  • Ibrahim Hoca Pasha.....................................1713
  • Sehid Damad Silahdar Ali Pasha....................1713-1716
  • Haci Halil Pasha..................................1716-1717 d. 1733
  • Nisanci Mehmed Pasha..............................1717-1718 d. 1728
  • Nevsehirli Damad Ibrahim Pasha....................1718-1730
  • Damad Silahdar Mehmed Pasha.......................1730-1731 d. 1737
  • Kabakulak Ibrahim Pasha................................1731 d. 1742
  • Topal Osman Pasha.................................1731-1732 d. 1736
  • Vali in Bosnia, and later in Vidin (Bulgaria). Retired from the Grand Viziership but later assassinated by Iranian agents owing to his habit of fielding victorious armies against the Shah.
  • Hekimoglu Ali Pasha...............................1732-1735 d. 1758
  • Gürcü Ismail Pasha.....................................1735
  • Silahdar Seyyid Mehmed Pasha......................1736-1737 d. 1756
  • Muhsinzade Abdullah Çelebi (Vali in Bosnia)............1737 d. 1749
  • Yegen Mehmed Pasha................................1737-1739 d. 1745
  • Haci Ivazzade Mehmed Pasha........................1739-1740 d. 1743
  • Nisanci Haci Ahmed Pasha..........................1740-1742
  • Hekimoglu Ali Pasha (restored).........................1742 d. 1758
  • Said Hasan Pasha..................................1742-1746 d. 1748
  • Tiryaki Haci Mehmed Pasha.........................1746-1747 d. 1751
  • Boynuegri Seyyid Abdullah Pasha...................1747-1750 d. 1761
  • Divitdar Mehmed Pasha.............................1750-1752
  • Köse Bahir Mustafa Pasha..........................1752-1755 d. 1765
  • Hekimoglu Ali Pasha (re-restored)......................1755 d. 1758
  • Naili Abdullah Pasha...................................1755 d. 1758
  • Nisanci Biyikli Ali Pasha..............................1755
  • Mehmed Said Pasha.................................1755-1756
  • Köse Bahir Mustafa Pasha (restored)....................1756
  • Koca Mehmed Ragib Pasha...........................1757-1763
  • Hamza Hamid Pasha......................................1763 d. 1770
  • Köse Bahir Mustafa Pasha (re-restored)............1763-1765
  • Muhsinzade Mehmed Pasha...........................1765-1768 d. 1773
  • Silahdar Mahir Hamza Pasha.............................1768
  • Yaglikçizade Nisani Mehmed Emin Pasha.............1768-1769
  • Moldovanci Ali Pasha...................................1769
  • Ivazzade Halil Pasha..............................1769-1770 d. 1777
  • Silahdar Mehmed Pasha.............................1770-1771
  • Muhsinzade Mehmed Pasha (restored)................1771-1773
  • Izzet Mehmed Pasha................................1773-1775 d. 1783
  • Dervis Mehmed Pasha...............................1775-1777
  • Darendeli Cebecizade Mehmed Pasha.................1777-1778 d. 1784
  • Kalafat Mehmed Pasha..............................1778-1779 d. 1792
  • Silahdar Seyyid Mehmed Pasha......................1779-1781 d. 1781
  • Izzet Mehmed Pasha (restored).....................1781-1782 d. 1738
  • Yegen Haci Mehmed Pasha................................1782 d. 1786
  • Halil Hamid Pasha.................................1782-1785
  • Sahin Ali Pasha...................................1785-1786 d. 1789
  • Koca Yusuf Pasha..................................1786-1789 d. 1800
  • Kethuda Çerkes Hasan Pasha........................1789-1790 d. 1810
  • Cezayirli Gazi Hasan Pasha.............................1790
  • Rusçuklu Cezayirli Hasan Serif Pasha..............1790-1791
  • Koca Yusuf Pasha (restored).......................1791-1792 d. 1800
  • Damad Melek Mehmed Pasha..........................1792-1794 d. 1802
  • Izzet Mehmed Pasha................................1794-1798 d. 1812
  • Yusuf Ziyaüddin Pasha.............................1798-1805 d. 1818
  • Hafiz Ismail Pasha................................1805-1806
  • Hilmi Ibrahim Pasha...............................1806-1807
  • Çelebi Mustafa Pasha..............................1807-1808 d. 1810
  • Alemdar Mustafa Pasha "Bayrakdar"......................1808
  • Memis Pasha............................................1808 d. 1809
  • Çarhaci Ali Pasha.................................1808-1809 d. 1823
  • Yusuf Ziyaüddin Pasha (restored)..................1809-1811 d. 1818
  • Laz Ahmed Pasha...................................1811-1812
  • Hursid Ahmed Pasha................................1812-1815 d. 1818
  • Mehmed Emin Rauf Pasha............................1815-1818 d. 1859
  • Dervis Mehmed Pasha...............................1818-1820 d. 1837
  • Seyyid Ali Pasha..................................1820-1821
  • Benderli Ali Pasha.....................................1821
  • Haci Salih Pasha..................................1821-1822
  • Hamdullah Abdullah Pasha..........................1822-1823
  • Silahdar Ali Pasha.....................................1823
  • Mehmed Said Galip Pasha...........................1823-1824 d. 1829
  • Benderli Selim Sirri Pasha........................1824-1828 d. 1831
  • Izzet Mehmet Pasha................................1828-1829
  • Resid Mehmed Pasha................................1829-1833 d. 1836
  • Mehmed Emin Rauf Pasha (restored).................1833-1839 d. 1859
  • Mehmed Hüsrev Pasha...............................1839-1841 d. 1855
  • Mehmed Emin Rauf Pasha (re-restored)...................1841 d. 1859
  • Izzet Mehmet Pasha (restored).....................1841-1842
  • Mehmed Emin Rauf Pasha (re-re-restored)...........1842-1846 d. 1859
  • Mustafa Resid Pasha...............................1846-1848 d. 1858
  • Ibrahim Sarim Pasha....................................1848 d. 1853
  • Mustafa Resid Pasha (restored)....................1848-1852 d. 1858
  • Mehmed Emin Rauf Pasha (re-re-re-restored).............1852 d. 1859
  • Mustafa Resid Pasha (re-restored)......................1852 d. 1858
  • Mehmed Emin Ali Pasha..................................1852 d. 1871
  • Damad Mehmed Ali Pasha............................1852-1853 d. 1868
  • Mustafa Naili Pasha...............................1853-1854 d. 1871
  • Kibrisli Mehmed Pasha..................................1854 d. 1865
  • Mustafa Resid Pasha (re-re-restored)..............1854-1855 d. 1858
  • Mehmed Emin Ali Pasha (restored)..................1855-1856 d. 1871
  • Mustafa Resid Pasha (re-re-re-restored)...........1856-1857 d. 1858
  • Mustafa Naili Pasha (restored).........................1857 d. 1871
  • Mustafa Resid Pasha (re-re-re-re-restored)........1857-1858
  • Mehmed Emin Ali Pasha (re-restored)...............1858-1859 d. 1871
  • Kibrisli Mehmed Pasha (restored).......................1859 d. 1865
  • Mütercim Mehmed Rüstü Pasha.......................1859-1860 d. 1882
  • Kibrisli Mehmed Pasha (re-restored)...............1860-1861 d. 1865
  • Mehmed Emin Ali Pasha (re-re-restored).................1861 d. 1871
  • Keçecizade Mehmed Fuad Pasha......................1861-1863 d. 1869
  • Yusuf Kamil Pasha......................................1863 d. 1876
  • Keçecizade Mehmed Fuad Pasha (restored)...........1863-1866 d. 1869
  • Mütercim Mehmed Rüstü Pasha (restored)............1866-1867 d. 1882
  • Mehmed Emin Ali Pasha (re-re-re-restored).........1867-1871
  • Mahmud Nedim Pasha................................1871-1872 d. 1883
  • Midhat Pasha...........................................1872 d. 1884
  • Mütercim Mehmed Rüstü Pasha (re-restored).........1872-1873 d. 1882
  • Mehmed Esad Pasha......................................1873 d. 1875
  • Sirvanizade Mehmed Rüstü Pasha....................1873-1874
  • Hüseyin Avni Pasha................................1874-1875 d. 1876
  • Mehmed Esad Pasha (restored)...........................1875
  • Mahmud Nedim Pasha (restored).....................1875-1876 d. 1883
  • Mütercim Mehmed Rüstü Pasha (re-re-restored)...........1876 d. 1882
  • Midhat Pasha (restored)...........................1876-1877 d. 1884
  • Tunuslu Ibrahim Edhem Pasha.......................1877-1878 d. 1893
  • Ahmed Hamdi Pasha......................................1878 d. 1885
  • Ahmed Vefik Pasha......................................1878 d. 1891
  • Mehmed Sadik Pasha.....................................1878 d. 1901
  • Mütercim Mehmed Rüstü Pasha (re-re-re-restored)........1878 d. 1882
  • Mehmed Esad Saffet Pasha...............................1878 d. 1881
  • Tunuslu Hayreddin Pasha...........................1878-1879 d. 1890
  • Arifi Pasha............................................1879 d. 1895
  • Küçük Mehmed Said Pasha...........................1879-1882 d. 1914
  • Ahmed Vefik Pasha (restored)...........................1882 d. 1891
  • Küçük Mehmed Said Pasha (restored)................1882-1885 d. 1914
  • Kibrisli Mehmed Kamil Pasha.......................1885-1891 d. 1913
  • Ahmed Cevad Pasha.................................1891-1895 d. 1900
  • Küçük Mehmed Said Pasha (re-restored)..................1895 d. 1914
  • Kibrisli Mehmed Kamil Pasha (restored).................1895 d. 1913
  • Halil Rifat Pasha.................................1895-1901
  • Küçük Mehmed Said Pasha (re-re-restored)..........1901-1903 d. 1914
  • Mehmed Ferid Pasha................................1903-1908 d. 1914
  • Küçük Mehmed Said Pasha (re-re-re-restored)............1908 d. 1914
  • Kibrisli Mehmed Kamil Pasha (re-restored).........1908-1909 d. 1913
  • Ahmed Tevfik Pasha.....................................1909 d. 1936
  • Hüseyin Hilmi Pasha...............................1909-1910 d. 1922
  • Ibrahim Hakki Pasha...............................1910-1911 d. 1918
  • Küçük Mehmed Said Pasha (re-re-re-re-restored)....1911-1912 d. 1914
  • Gazi Ahmed Muhtar Pasha................................1912 d. 1918
  • Kibrisli Mehmed Kamil Pasha (re-re-restored)......1912-1913
  • Mahmud Sevket Pasha....................................1913
  • Said Halim Pasha..................................1913-1917 d. 1921
  • Mehmed Talat Pasha................................1917-1918 d. 1921
  • Ahmed Izzet Pasha......................................1918 d. 1937
  • Ahmed Tevfik Pasha (restored).....................1918-1919 d. 1936
  • Damad Adil Ferid Pasha.................................1919 d. 1923
  • Ali Riza Pasha....................................1919-1920 d. 1932
  • Salih Pasha............................................1920 d. 1939
  • Damad Adil Ferid Pasha (restored)......................1920 d. 1923
  • Ahmed Tevfik Pasha (re-restored)..................1920-1922 d. 1936
 
   

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