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4. SERBIA & YUGOSLAVIA
George Petrovic,
Kara ("Black") George
leads revolt,
1804-1813
Milos Obrenovicleads revolt,
1815-1817;
Prince,
1817-1839,
1858-1860
Milan I1839
Michael1839-1842,
1860-1868
Alexander Karadjordjevic
(Karageorgevich)
1842-1858
Milan II Obrenovic1868-1882
King,
1882-1889
Alexander I1889-1903,
murdered
Peter I
Karadjordjevic
1903-1921
King of Yugoslavia,
1919-1921
Alexander IIRegent,
1918-1921
1921-1934
Peter II1934-1945
PaulRegent,
1934-1941
German & Italian Occupation, 1941-1943
German Occupation, 1943-1945
Communist takeover, 1945
Ivan Ribar1945-1953
Josip Broz Tito1953-1980
Lazar Kolisevski1980
Cvijetin Mijatovic1980-1981
Sergej Kraiger1981-1982
Petar Stambolic1982-1983
Mika Spiljak1983-1984
Veselin Ðuranovic1984-1985
Radovan Vlaikovic1985-1986
Sinan Hasani1986-1987
Lazar Mojsov1987-1988
Raif Dizdarevic1988-1989
Janez Drnovsek1989-1990
Borisav Jovic1990-1991
Stjepan Mesic1991
Branko Kostic1991
Dobrica Cosic1992-1993
Zoran Lilic1993-1997
Srdjan Bozovic1997
Slobodan Milosevic1997-2000
Vojislav Kostunica2000-present


In the shadow of the Napoleonic Wars and a Russian war with Turkey, Serbia began the Balkan independence movement against Turkey with a long revolt that led to an Ottoman grant of autonomy. The rivalry of the two leaders of the revolt, Milosh Obrenovic and "Black" George Petrovic, however, led to a century of sometimes bloodly conflict between their two families, culminating in a coup in 1903 when King Alexander I was murdered. The Congress of Vienna in 1878 granted Serbia full independence, and the status of a Kingdom followed shortly. The Serbian dream was not just to unite all Serbian speakers remaining in Bosnia, Montenegro, Hungary, and Turkey, but all of the "Southern Slavs," including the Croatians, Slovenians, and perhaps even Bulgarians. In the aftermath of World War I, which began with the Serbian inspired assassination of the Archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria in Sarajevo, this dream was realized in the establishment of Yugoslavia, which contained all the Southern Slavs except for Bulgaria, which had its own fiercely separate traditions and ambitions. Macedonia, however, had been wrested from Bulgaria in the Second Balkan War (1913). These benefits were substantially due to the Russians, to whom the Serbs looked as the protectors and patrons of the Orthodox Slavs. World War I formally began when Russia declared war on Austria to protect the Serbs. The flags of both Serbia and Yugoslavia are like the tricolor flag of Russia, with just a different arrangement of the stripes. The ethnic tensions between Orthodox Serbs and Catholic Slovenes and Croatians (and others), however, manifested themselves both in World War II, when the Germans found willing allies in the Croatians, and with the Fall of Communism, when the growth of democracy unmasked the separatist hostilities again. Yugoslavia broke up, with bitter fighting, atrocities, and "ethnic cleansing" as the various communities and new states sought to secure territory.
Former Yugoslav
Republics
Slovenia
Croatia
Bosnia Herzegovina
Macedonia
Although all the groups have been guilty of offenses, the consenus of international observers and investigators, not to mention the War Crimes Tribunal in the Hague, seems to be that the Serbs, seeking to maintain a dominant position and initially with a military advantage, are more guilty than others, especially in Bosnia and Kosovo. The future remains uncertain, as NATO/UN peacekeeping forces are the only thing that seems to restrain the violence from breaking out again in Bosnia, and the status of Kosovo is open, as Serbs flee the retaliation of the Albanians, which has extended to vandalizing churches and monasteries, and the Albanians have no interest in being returned to Serbia. All the now stands between "Yugoslavia" being just Serbia is the continued adherence of Montenegro. The two countries are no different ethnically, linguistically, or religiously. All that is different is history, which is enough to fuel a Montenegran independence movement. Be that as it may, the combined state has essentially become Serbia again.

Mediaeval Serbia

The Balkan Wars all but eliminated Turkey in Europe. In the First War (1912-1913), everyone attacked Turkey, which even lost Adrianople to Bulgaria. Serbia was going to annex Albania, but the Great Powers required that it become an independent state. The Serbs were not happy about that, and Bulgaria wasn't happy about its share either. So the Second War (1913) featured everyone against Bulgaria, which lost Macedonia to Serbia, Adrianople to Turkey, and some territory south of the Danube to România. Meanwhile, Italy had been at war with Turkey in 1912 and had obtained Libya and, on this map, the Dodecanese Islands.
 

 

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