of Turkish Architecture, Oguz Ceylan,
Mimar Sinan University,
Department of Restoration
Turkish communities have displayed architectural products over many
regions in the span of history from their appearance until today.
Turkish communities displaying architectural works in lands
extending from Central Asia to Balkans, have consciously led both
nomadic and settled life styles at once before the pre-Islamic
period. Altai, Sayan Mountains and Tien-Shen region in Central Asia
are known as the regions to be densely populated by Turks during
this time. Records show that Turkish communities accumulated in the
Maveraunnehir region especially after the VI century. Archeological
excavations are continued at the sites where Turkish communities
settled and new finds are brought to light with every passing day.
Research on Turkish Architecture is
generally carried out around the focal point of Anatolia's conquest
in the eleventh century. During the pre-Anatolian era, one major
development we come across is the spread of Islam among Turkish
communities in the ninth century concurrently the transformation of
the physical textures of cities. During this period three moslem
Turkish States come into power and produce original architectural
Period Architecture (840-1212)
The typical features of the Karakhanid period architecture, examples
of which are seen in the cities Bukhara, Samarkand and Merv, are the
central court plans with iwan and use of domes and vault and the
preference of brick and sundried brick as building materials.
Important structures are the mosques of Hazara and Talhatan Baba,
Bibi Hanim tomb and caravanserais of Ribat-i Melik and Daya Hatun.
Period Architecture (926-1186)
The most important structure of the Ghazhanids who ruled the lands
where Afghanistan lies today is the Lesger-i Bazar Palace complex.
The central court and four iwan scheme is the plan dominating the
structure. The Ghazhanids have continued the traditional Central
Seljuk Period Architecture (1037-1157)
Ruling the lands where Iran exists today the Seljuks left examples
of architecture in cities such as Isfahan, Nishapur and Kum. The
four iwan standard scheme was imposed especially on religious
structures. Important structures are Isfehan Mescid-i Cumasi, Sultan
Sencer Tomb, Nizamiye Medresse, Ribat-i Melik Caravanserai.
Turkish communities led to Anatolia
by authorities on purpose during the Seljuk Period entered Anatolia
at the same time with the waves of immigrants from Central Asia.
Turkish communities who became more powerful after the 1071 Battle
of Manzikert first settled in Konya region then around Iznik. Turks
started to produce architectural works in Anatolia, the melting pot
of many cultures from Hittites to Byzantines.
Seljuks Period (1076-1308)
Anatolian Seljuks built mosques, medresses, caravanserais and
vaults. Four iwan standard scheme dominates the plan in these
buildings where cut stone is the main material. Important examples
are: Konya Alaeddin Mosque, Divrigi Ulu Mosque and Group of
Buildings, Huand Hatun Group of Buildings, Gomec Hatun Vault,
Erzurum Twin Minaret Medresse, Sivas Gok Medresse, Sultan Inns.
During the couple of hundred years
following the Anatolian Seljuks State, the period of Beylikler
(1310-1400), states such as Karamanids, Germiyanogullari,
Saruhanogullari, Candarogullari and Ottomans were established and
other than mosques a few medresses were constructed. Some important
structures are: Birgi Ulu Mosque, Manisa Ulu Mosque, Seljuk Isa Bey
Mosque and Kasabakoy Mahmut Bey Mosque.
In this period two main types of religious structure plans, Ulu
mosque and Converted T plan mosques, are applied. Important
structures are: Bursa Orhan Mosque, Bursa Hudavendigar Mosque, Iznik
Green Mosque, Edirne Eski Mosque, Green Tomb, Bursa Emir Inn and
Bursa Yildirim Drapery Market. Leading architects of the era are
Haci bin Musa and Haci Ivaz.
This is the era when one single and large inner space was being
searched for religious architecture and a single dome was tried to
cover this inner space. Monumentality is the major feature in
architecture of this period.The major examples of structures of
which many types appeared, are: Edirne Three Galleries (of a
minaret) Mosque, Fatih Group of Buildings, Bayezid Group of
Buildings, Sehzade Group of Buildings, Suleymaniye Group of
buildings, Edirne Selimiye Mosque, Kanuni Tomb, Rustem Pasha
medresse, Koprulu Library, Bayezid Bath, Mahmud Pasha Inn and
Cevahir Drapery Market. Mimar Sinan, Mimar Davut and Mimar Kasim are
the important arhitects of the time.
Born as a reaction against the forms of the classical period the
tulip period gave structures such as Uskudar Yeni Valide Mosque,
Nevsehirli Damat Ibrahim Pasha Medresse, Vefa Atif Efendi Library,
Buyuk Yeni Inn and Ahmet III Fountain.
Circular, wavy and curved lines are predominant in the structures of
this period. Major examples are Nur-u Osmaniye Mosque, Laleli
Mosque, Fatih Tomb, Laleli Cukurcesme Inn, Birgi Cakiraga Mansion,
Aynali Kavak Summerplace, Selimiye Barracks. Mimar Tahir is the
important architect of the time.
Nusretiye Mosque, Ortakoy Mosque, Sultan Mahmut Tomb, Galata Lodge
of Mevlevi Derviches, Dolmabahce Palace,Sadullah Pasha Waterside
Residence, Kuleli Barracks are the important examples of this style
developped parallel with the westernization process. Architects from
the Balyan Family were the leading ones of the time.
Aksaray Valide Mosque, Sheikh Zafir Group of Buildings, Haydarpasha
School of Medicine, Duyun-u Umumiye Building, Istanbul Title Deed
Office, Large Postoffice Building, Laleli Harikzedegan Apartments
are the important structures of this period when an eclectic style
was dominant. R. D'Aronco, A. Vallaury are leading architects of the
Republic Architecture (1923- )
Large scale architectural works were built especially in the new
capital in this era when national consciousness was being created.
During the First Period of National Architecture, structural
elements of Seljuk and Ottoman architecture were used. Bostanci and
Bebek Mosques, Vakif Inns, Laleli / Harikzadegan Apartments, Ankara
Palas (sumptuous hotel), Big Postoffice, Cemil Topuzlu Villa are
important structures of the time. Mimar Kemalettin, Mimar Vedat and
Muzaffer Bey are the leading architects. Many foreign architects
took part in in the architectural milieu of this period. G. Mongeri
can be named as an example. Second Period of National Architecture
coincides with the rise of National Socialism in the world which was
at the time highly effective in our country. With a growing reaction
against foreign architects, the reference points of this period are
the proportion and the elements related to the Turkish Civilian
Architecture. Istanbul Radio House, Istanbul Justice Palace, Tomb of
Ataturk, Ankara Faculty of Science are the important structures of
the period. P. Bonatz, S. Hakki Eldem and E. Onat are the leading
Altinay A. R., Türk Mimarlari / Türkish Architects, Istanbul 1936
Arseven C.E., Turk Sanati Tarihi / History of Turkish Art, Istanbul
Aslanapa O., Osmanli Devri Mimarisi / Architecture of Ottoman Age,
Diez E., Aslanapa O., Türk Sanati / Turkish Art, Istanbul 1955
Eldem S. H., Türk Mimari Eserleri / Buildings of Turkish
Architecture, Istanbul 1984
Goodwin G., A History of Ottoman Architecture, London 1978
Kuban, D., Türkiye Sanati Tarihi, Art History of Turkey, Istanbul
Kuran A., Mimar Sinan/ Architect Sinan, Istanbul 1986
Sözen M., Topan M., 50 Yilin Türk Mimarisi / Architecture of 50
years old Turkish Republic, Istanbul 1973
East Technical University
Yildiz Technical University
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