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Persians

 

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Persians

GREAT KINGS OF PERSIA
ACHAEMENIDS
Achaemenes  
Teispes 675-640
Cyrus I 640-600
Cambyses I 600-559
Cyrus (Kurush) II, the Great 559-530
overthrows Medes, 550;
conquers Lydia, 547;
conquers Babylon, 539
Cambyses (Kambujiya) II 530-522
conquers Egypt, 525;
XXVII DYNASTY
of Egypt
Darius (Darayavahush) I 522-486
invades Greece, defeated at the
battle of Marathon, 490
Xerxes (Xshayarsha) I 486-465
invades Greece, defeated at the battles
of Salamis and Platea, 480, 479
Artaxerxes (Artaxshassa) I
Longimanus
465-424
Xerxes II 424-423
Darius II 423-404
Egypt breaks away, 404
Artaxerxes II Mnemon 404-359
Artaxerxes III Ochus 359-338
reconquers Egypt, 343;
"XXXI" DYNASTY
Arses (Arsha) 338-336
Darius III Codomannus 336-330
Macedonian Conquest

Cyrus the Great overthrew, in turn, the Medes, Lydians, and Babylonians, suddenly creating an empire far larger than even the Assyrian. Cyrus was better able, through more benign policies, to reconcile his subjects to Persian rule; and the longevity of his empire was one result. The Persian king, like the Assyrian, was also "king of kings," xshayathiya xshayathiyânâm (shâhanshâh in modern Persian) -- "great king," megas basileus, as known by the Greeks. Alexander the Great, after he ultimately overthrew the Persians, deliberately assumed the universal pretensions of the Achaemenid kings, but the division of his empire after his early death eliminates any factual universality until the Roman Empire.

 
KINGS OF MACEDONIA
Peridiccas I 7th Cent.
Aeropus I  
Alcetas I d.500
Amyntas I 500-498
Alexander I
Philhellene
498-454
Philip I d.c.430
Alcetas II d.c.411
Perdiccas II 454-413
Archelaus
Philhellene
413-399
Orest 399-c.397
Aeropus II c.397-c.392
Amyntas II c.392-c.390
Amyntas III c.390-370
Alexander II 370-368
Perdiccas III 368-360
Amyntas IV 360-359
Philip II 359-336
Conquest of Greece
at Chaeronea, 338
Alexander III
the Great
336-323

 

Macedonia quietly grew into a power that, under Philip II, would dominate Greece and, in short order, turn against Persia. It is a little odd to think of all these monarchs, so important in Greek history, as not actually being Greek; but, like neighboring Epirus, they are not. A revealing point in this respect is the epithet "Philhellene" of Alexander I. No Greek needs to be called "loving the Greeks." Exactly what the linguistic affinities of the Macedonians were is unclear. That it could be to the later Illyrians, or Thracians, or even modern Albanians, is always possible, but the matter is largely speculative. Whatever it was, the Philhellenism of the Kings soon created a layer of Greek culture that made them seem proper Greeks to everyone except, of course, the actual Greeks. The Macedonian monarchy itself also struck the Greeks as rather un-Greek. When Philip added his own statue to a procession of the Twelve Olympians, his assassination shortly thereafter suggested that the gods had been offended. If so, his son, Alexander III, was untroubled, initiating Hellenistic practice by assuming divine attributes -- something else to scandalize the Greeks, if by then anyone actually cared. The modern Macedonians are actually Slavs, but nearly everything about both the ancient and modern peoples is disputed by them and by Modern Greeks.

Egypt, which was added to the Persian empire by Cyrus's son Cambyses, frequently revolted against the Persians. The Persian invasion of Greece in 490 was in part to be punishment of the Greeks for helping the Egyptians in these revolts. Since the invasion of 480 was then in revenge for the failure of the invasion of 490, we could say that the consequences of Greek interference in Egypt were persistent. But the Egyptians and the Greeks kept at it, and eventually...

 

 

  

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 

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