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Hittites in Depth ] [ Kings of Hittites ] Sea People ]
Kings of Hittites

 

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Hittites & Kings of the Hittites (Ancient Anatolian Civilization)

Old Kingdom
Tudhaliya(s)? 1740-1710
Pusarruma(s)? 1710-1680
Labarna(s) I? 1680-1650 c.1680-1650?
Labarna(s) II?/
Hattusilis I
1650-1620 1650-1620
Mursili(s) I 1620-1590 1620-1590
Sack of Babylon, c.1595
Hantili(s) I 1590-1560 1590-1560
Zidanta(s) I 1560-1550 1560-1550
Ammuna(s) 1550-1530 1550-1530
Huzziya(s) I 1530-1525 1530-1525
Telipinu(s) 1525-1500 1525-1500
Alluwamna(s) 1500-1490 1500-
1430/1420
Hantili(s) II 1490-1480
Zidanta(s) II 1480-1470
Huzziya(s) II 1470-1460

The first column of dates at left is from O.R. Gurney, The Hittites [Penguin Books, 1952, 1962, p.216]. The second column of dates is from Georges Roux, Ancient Iraq [Penguin Books, 1964, 1992, pp.507-9] and/or Amélie Kuhrt, The Ancient Near East, c.3000-330 BC [Routledge, 1995, 2000, p.230]. In the table for the "Empire" period below, Gurney, Roux, and Kuhrt have been separated into three columns, with Kuhrt's column giving alternative dates in itself. The uncertainties of Hittite dating are still so great that Kuhrt also gives the Kings in a different sequence, as can be seen from the dates.

In the earlier chronologies, there is the inconvenience that the events of the reign of Ramesses II do not match up with the corresponding Hittite dates for these events. Thus, Roux gives 1300 as the date for the battle of Qadesh, while none of the Egyptian references has Ramesses coming to the throne before 1290. Kuhrt's latest dates allow a match for the Battle of Qadesh given with Egyptian chronology, 1275.

The earlier histories usually give the names of the Hittite Kings with a final "s." Kuhrt drops this, without discussion. Presumably the "s" is not actually in the texts. I would imagine that when it was discovered that Hittite was an Indo-European language, it may have become customary to assume the same nominative ending that is found from Latin to Greek to Sanskrit, i.e. "s." Apparently, the custom has lapsed.

Although the Kingdom of the Hittites in central Anatolia was wiped out by the obscure migrations of the 12th century, small Hittite (nor "Neo-Hittite") states continued in Southern Turkey, to which references to the Hittites in the Bible refer. These small states are still commemorated in the name "Hatay" containing Antioch.

The discovery of the Hittite Kingdom and its language was an archaeological sensation at a time when the only Hittites anyone was aware of were those of the small states in the Bible. The decipherment of the Hittite language created another sensation, when it turned out to be an Indo-European language. Even better, it was an evidently archaic dialect which contained sounds in positions that comparative theory had predicted should have been "pharyngeal" sounds (perhaps like Arabic 'ayn) in Proto-Indo-European, but which had not hitherto been found in attested languages.

 
Empire
  Gurney Roux Kuhrt
Tudhaliya(s) I 1460-1440 1450-1420 1430/1420-
1410/1400
Arnuwanda(s) I 1440-1420 1420-1400 1390/1370-
1380/1355
Tudhaliya(s) II   1400/1390-
1390/1370
Hattusili(s) II 1420-1400   1410/1400-
1400/1390
Tudhaliya(s) III 1400-1380 1395-1380 1380/1355-
1370/1344
Suppiluliuma(s) I 1380-1340 c.1380-1336 1370/1344-
1330/1322
Defeat of Mitanni, c.1370;
reduction of Syria, supplication
from widowed Egyptian Queen
to marry a Hittite Prince, c.1340
Mattiwaza ?
Arnuwanda(s) II 1340-1339   1330/1322-
1330/1321
Mursili(s) II 1339-1306 1335-1310 1330/1321-
1295
Muwatilli(s) 1306-1282 1309-1287 1295-
1282/1271
Battle of Qadesh, 1300 or 1286/1275
Urhi-Teshub/
Mursilis III
1282-1275   1282/1271-
1275/1264
Hattusili(s) III 1275-1250 1286-1265 1275/1264-
1245/1239
Egyptian-Hittite Treaty, 1286 or 1269/1258
Tudhaliya(s) IV 1250-1220 1265-1235 1245/1239-
1215/1209
Arnuwanda(s) III 1220-1190 1235-1215 1215/1209-
1210/1205
Suppiluliuma(s) II 1190-? 1215-? 1210/1205-?
Phrygians & Gasgas destroy
Hittites, c.1200

Ironically, it was the Hittites who then brought to an end the Kingdom of the Mitanni, which may have been ruled by a noble elite with Indo-Aryan affinities, speaking or influenced by another Indo-European language from the same family as Persian and Sanskrit, and who worshiped gods obviously identical to those of the Vedas. The Indo-Aryan influence on Mitanni had clearly come in across Iran, but where the Hittites originally came from, if not autochthonous, is as mysterious as ever.  

 

Kelley L. Ross, Ph.D.  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

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