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Phrygia

 

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  Phrygia

An ancient Kingdom located in much of central Anatolia. The Phrygians emerged out of northwestern Anatolia (Ilium and Bythynia - where, much much later, the Ottomans would emerge) or perhaps even further west, from Thrace, to sweep across  the northern and central hill-country following the disintegration of the Hittite state. The Phrygian Kingdom recorded here endured for centuries as a primary state on the edge of the Hellenic and Egyptian worlds. It's influence is diffuse but real - King Midas of the so well-known fables is said to have been from here (though he cannot be identified with any of the Midas' in the list); and the Phrygian commoner's hat came to be used  by later civilizations as symbol of emancipation from slavery - the Liberty Cap is still recognized today.

  • To the Hittites................................c. 1800-c. 1250 BCE
  • TANTALID
  • Tantalus.......................................... fl. c. 1300 ?
  • Teuphrant..............................................c. 1300
  • Teleph
  • Tarhont
  • Migdon.................................................c. 1200
  • Curtius
  • ??
  • Gordios I
  • Midas I
  • Gordios II
  • Midas II
  • Gordios III
  • Midas III..........................................738-695
  • Gordios IV.........................................695-670
  • Midas IV............................................c. 670
  • Overrun by Cimmerians..............................695-626
  • To Lydia...........................................626-590
  • Midas V.........................................c. 590-c. 570
  • Gordios V.......................................c. 570-c. 546
  • To Persia.......................................c. 546-334
    • Persian Satraps of Hellespontine Phrygia
    • PHARNACID
    • Artabazus (Irdumazda).......................c.480-c. 450
    • Pharnabazus I (Parnadumazda)...............c. 450-c. 430
    • Pharnaces (Parnaka)........................c. 430-c. 420
    • Pharnabazus II.............................c. 420-387
    • Ariobarzanus (Arayabardumazda)................387-363
    • Ariobarzanus rebelled in 363, was betrayed by his son Mehrdad and executed.
    • Artabazus.....................................363-353 d. c. 320
    • Artabazus' life is a fascinating study in political flexibility. He managed to convince the crown that he was innocent of complicity with his brother's rebellion, and finagled his way into the satrapal throne. In 353 he rebelled against Persia, a bizarre decision considering that he had no army. He hired a force of Athenian mercenaries who successfully defended him until Artaxerxes threatened war against Athens, causing their recall. He was defeated while trying to raise a new army of Theban mercenaries and fled to the court of Philip II in Macedon. There he befriended a young Alexander the Great and became an admirer of Aristotle. In 343 he was granted amnesty and recalled to Persia, where he warned of Philip's plans for a Hellenic invasion of Asia. He settled in retirement until the Macedonian invasion finally came, and transferred his loyalty to Alexander, who made him satrap of Bactria. His daughter Barzine was Alexander's lover and the mother of his firstborn, if illegitimate son, Herakles; and he managed to marry off his younger daughters to such eminent figures as Nearchus, Alexander's admiral, Eumenes, the treasurer, and the Ptolemy who would later rule Egypt.
    • Non-Pharnacid satrap
    • Arsites....................................c. 353-333
  • To Macedon.........................................333-309
  • Greater (Eastern, or Anatolian) Phrygia
    • Macedonian Governor, King from 305
  • Antigonas One-Eye..................................333-301
  • Effectively ruled much of Anatolia following Alexanders death in 323, formally declared the independence in 305.
  • To Seleucid Empire.................................301-190
  • But much of the interior of Anatolia broken up into other states (Cappadocia, Galatia, Paphlagonia, Pontus, etc.) .
  • To Pergamon........................................190-133
  • To Roman Empire from 133
  • Lesser (Western, or Hellespontine) Phrygia
    • Macedonian Governors
    • Kalas.........................................333-331
    • Dimarchus.....................................331-323
    • Leonatus......................................323-322
    • Eumenes of Cappadocia.........................322-321
    • Arrhidaeus....................................321-318
    • Ptolemios.....................................318-313
    • Phoenix.......................................313-309
  • To the Kingdom of Antigonas........................305-301
  • To Seleucid Empire.................................309-200
  • To Bithynia........................................200-190
  • To Pergamon........................................190-133
  • To the Roman Republic..............................133-27
  • To the Roman Empire.............................27 BCE-395 CE
  • To the Byzantine Empire............................395-1071
  • To the Seljuqs....................................1071-1077
  • To the Rum Seljuqs................................1077-1086
  • To the Great Seljuqs..............................1086-1092
  • To the Rum Seljuqs................................1092-1097
  • To the Byzantine Empire...........................1097-1204
  • To the Nicaean Empire.............................1204-1261
  • To the Byzantine Empire...........................1261- < 1299
  • GERMIYAN (KŁtahya)
  • Yaqub I Ali Shir............................... < 1299-1327 >
  • Muhammad Chakhshadan...........................1327 > - < 1363
  • Sulayman Shah...................................< 1363-1387
  • Yaqub II Chelebi..................................1387-1390 d. 1428
  • To the Ottomans...................................1390-1402
  • To the Timurid Empire.............................1402-1405
  • Yaqub II Chelebi (restored).......................1402-1411 d. 1428
  • To Qaraman........................................1411-1413
  • Yaqub II Chelebi (re-restored)....................1413-1428
  • To the Ottomans thereafter...
  

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

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