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Pergamum

 

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  Bergama (Pergamum)

Pergamum, (105 kms north of Izmir)~~ is one of the major sites antiquity in Turkey, having been a great center of culture and civilization throughout history. The site has remarkable remains from the Roman and Byzantine periods. The Asclepion to the southwest of the lower city, was built to pay homage to the God of Health, Asclepios, and it was the most celebrated in the world. The temples of Trajan and Dionysus, majestic Altar of Zeus, the temple of Demeter, inspiring theatre, the gymnasium, the arsenals, the lower agora and the famous library form the Acropolis. In addition, you may see the finds from Pergamum and the surrounding area. In the Archaeological and Ethnographical Museum. The temple of Serapis, also called the "Red Courtyard" due to its red tiles, is today located within the town of Bergama. It was built as a sanctuary dedicated to Serapis and was then converted into a basilica by the Byzantines. Bergama is the homeland of many philosophers and scientists. Among them is Krates who invented and produced the "parchment paper" (Pergamene Kaste) here.

Dikili is a harbor town close to Bergama, visited by cruise liners bringing visitors to Pergamum. Dikili is an ideal place to relax after a Pergamum excursion. A walk along the Rordan promenade is a pleasure. Between Dikili and Izmir do not forget to visit the port of Candaril which is crowned with one of the best preserved Genoese fortresses .

Time Line of Pergamum (Bergama)

Based in northwest Anatolia, beside the Aegean Sea opposite the Isle of Lesbos, but extending over much of western, central, south-western, and southern Anatolia for a time.

  • Kingdom of MYSIA (Teuthraea)
  • Semi-legendary and mythical Kings of Mysia
  • Amykos
  • Daskylos.........................................early 1300's BCE
  • Lykos..............................................mid 1300's BCE
  • Teuthras............................................c. 1300 ? opposed by...
  • Idas................................................c. 1300 ? and followed by...
  • Telephas........................................fl. c. 1250 BCE
  • Eurypylos
  • To Phrygia.....................................c. 1200-c. 700
  • To Lydia........................................c. 700-546
  • To Persian Empire..................................546-333
    • Eurypontid-Demaratid
    • Demaratus (King of Sparta 515-491)............479- ?
    • Demaratus was exiled from Sparta for his obstructionism and churlishness, and fled to Persia where he became an adviser on Greek affairs for Darius I and his son Xerxes. He accompanied Xerxes' expedition against Greece in 480 in the hopes of regaining his throne. Upon the failure of the invasion Xerxes gave him the cities of Pergamon, Teuthrania, and Halisarna, where his descendents were still rulers at the close of the fifth century BCE.
    • ?
    • Eurysthenes...................................fl. c. 400 with...
    • Prokles.......................................fl. c. 400
    • Some Demartids apparently returned to Sparta in the Hellenistic period; the tyrant Nabis (206-192) was a descendent of Demaratus.
    • Persian satraps of Mysia
    • Orontes....................................c. 362-344
    • Orontes is probably identical with Ervand II of Armenia. Orontes was a royal cousin from Bactria and served as satrap of Mysia during his latter years. Despite the fact that he led numerous rebellions against the Great King in the 350's, he was always forgiven and died a natural death.
  • To Macedon.........................................333-323
  • Within the Kingdom of Antigonus....................323-301
  • To Thrace (Kgdm. of Lysimachos)....................301-282
  • To the Seleucid Empire.............................282-263
  • Kingdom of PERGAMON
  • ATTALID
    • Philetaerus...................................282-263
  • Eumenes I..........................................263-241
  • Attalus I..........................................241-197
  • Eumenes II.........................................197-160/59
  • Attalus II......................................160/59-139/8
  • Attalus III......................................139/8-133
  • To Rome thereafter, opposed by...
  • Eumenes III Aristonicus............................133-128
  

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

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Last modified: 2016-08-27
 
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