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[ Lydia ] Sardis ]
Lydia

 

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  Lydia

A large and important state in early Classical times, located in western Anatolia. Based on the city of Sardis (modern Salihli), it expanded to include much of Mediterranean Anatolia before succumbing in turn to Persia.

  • Tmolus (son of Tantalus of Phrygia)................fl. c. 1300 ?
  • Heraclid
  • Herakles the Hero (Hercules, in Latin)
  • Molonos
  • Cotys
  • Atis
  • Lydus
  • Aciasmus
  • Ermonos
  • Alkymos
  • Kamblytos
  • Tmolus
  • Teoklemenos
  • Marsyus
  • Iardanus
  • Omphalos
  • Philemenos
  • Alkaios
  • Belos
  • Ninos
  • Agrom
  • Sandonid (Tilonid)
  • Ardys I.........................................c. 800- ?
  • Alyattes I
  • Myrsus (Meles)
  • Candaules.......................................... ? -720
  • Merminadae
  • Gyges..............................................720-682
  • Ardys..............................................682-633
  • Sadyattes..........................................633-621
  • Alyattes...........................................621-564
  • Croesus............................................564-546
  • To Persian Empire..................................546-333
    • Oroetus.......................................mid 500's
    • Otanes.................................late 500's-513
    • Artaphernes the Achaemenid....................513-493 d. ?
    • Artaphernes son of Hydarnes...................493-490
    • Gadatas.......................................fl. c. 490 ?
    • ?
    • Pissuthnes (Pisiyauthna)................mid 400's-415
    • Tissaphernes (Satrap in Caria 415-395)........415-407 d. 395
    • Tissaphernes was a high Persian noble, the grandson of the Hydarnes who had commanded the Persian Immortals at Thermopylae and Plataea. He was also the foe of the Ten Thousand, the Hellenic mercenaries whose exploits were chronicled in Xenophon's Anabasis.
    • Cyrus (Kurush) the Younger....................407-401
    • Cyrus was the younger son of Darius II, but was the oldest son born after Darius' accession to the Persian throne. By law the succession was his, but upon Darius' death Cyrus' older brother Artaxerxes II was crowned Shah. Cyrus was briefly imprisoned but then permitted to reassume the satrapy of Lydia. In 401 Cyrus raised a mercenary army including some 10,000 Greeks and marched on Persia. He was killed at Cunaxa and his Greek troops were forced to retreat north through hundreds of miles of hostile territory in east-central Anatolia, a feat chronicled in Xenophon's Anabasis.
    • Tissaphernes (restored).......................401-395
    • Tithraustes...................................395- ?
    • Tophradates.................................early 300's
    • Spithridates...............................c. 350-334
  • To Macedon.........................................334-323
    • Asander.......................................334-331
    • Menander......................................331-321
    • Klytus........................................321-318
  • Within the Kingdom of Antigonus....................318-301
  • To the Seleucid Empire.............................301-188
  • To Pergamum........................................188-133
  • To the Roman Republic..............................133-27
  • To the Roman Empire.............................27 BCE-395 CE
  • To the ByzantineEmpire.............................395-1071
  • To the Seljuq Turks...............................1071-1097
  • Much to the ByzantineEmpire.......................1097-1204
  • Much to the Nicaean Empire........................1204-1261
  • To the ByzantineEmpire............................1261-1313
  • Manisa (Magnesia) A Ghazi state in this province.
  • SARUKHANID
  • Sarukhan..........................................1313-1348
  • Ilyas.............................................1348-1357
  • Ishaq.............................................1357-1388
  • Khidr.............................................1388-1390 d. 1410
  • To the Ottomans...................................1390-1403
  • Orkhan............................................1403-1404
  • Khidr (restored)..................................1404-1410
  • To the Ottoman Empire thereafter...
  

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

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Last modified: 2016-08-27
 
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