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Ahlat

 

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  Ahlat

A large saltwater body of water with no outlet, located in eastern Anatolia. The district nearby has hosted a number of important polities over a very long time.

  • Hayk.............................................early 2nd millenium BCE ?
  • Hayk is the legendary eponymous ancestor-king of the Armenians. For a full list of Hayk and his descendents, and the Nairi Confederation, see early Armenia.
  • Nairi Confederation.............................1100's-800's BCE
  • Assyrian sources refer to a coalition of (possibly proto-Armenian) kings inhabiting this region. This confederacy probably coalesced into the kingdom of Urartu
  • Kingdom of Biai-nili (Urartu) Biai-nili was the local name of this polity - "Urartu" (from which "Ararat" is derived) is an Assyrian word. When the Kingdom was destroyed at the beginning of the 6th century BCE, many survivors fled northeast, into the Caucasus Mountains, there to establish further Armenian states.
  • Amme-Baal..........................................fl. 9th cent. BCE
  • Arame...........................................c. 860-c. 840
  • Sarduris I......................................c. 840-820
  • Ishpuinis..........................................820-805 with...
  • Menuas..........................................c. 810-785
  • Argystis I.........................................785-760
  • Sarduris II........................................760-733
  • Rusas I............................................733-714
  • Argystis II........................................714-c. 680
  • Rusas II........................................c. 680-675
  • Erimenas...........................................675-670
  • Rusas III..........................................670-c. 645
  • Sarduris III....................................c. 645-c. 620
  • Irgias..........................................c. 620-c. 600
  • Menuas II.......................................c. 600-c. 580
  • To Persia.......................................c. 595-331
  • To Macedon.........................................331-301
  • To the Seleucid Empire.............................301-189
  • To Armenia.........................................189-66
  • To the Roman Republic...............................66-27
  • To the Roman Empire.............................27 BCE-37 CE
  • To Persia...........................................37-47
  • To the Roman Empire.................................47-252
  • To Persia..........................................252-287
  • To the Roman Empire................................287-384
    • Princes of Rshtuniq Capital at Artamar.
    • RSHTUNI
    • Manuchar...................................c. 320-c. 335
    • Zora.......................................c. 335-c. 340
    • Megundak...................................c. 340-c. 345
    • Attached to the Armenian Crown.............c. 345-c. 360
    • Tachat.....................................c. 360-c. 365
    • Garegin....................................c. 365-c. 375
  • To Armenia.........................................384-428
  • To Persia..........................................428-653
    • Theodore (Pr. of Armenia 638-43, 645-54)...c. 615-654
  • To the Caliphate...................................653-657
    • Vard..........................................654-705
  • To the Byzantine Empire............................657-658
  • To the Caliphate...................................658-690
  • To the Byzantine Empire............................690-711
  • To the Caliphate...................................711-908
  • Principality of Vaspurakan An Armenian state based beside the lake, and controlling a wide territory for a time.
  • To the Roman Empire................................287-384
    • ARCRUNI
    • Vache I....................................c. 320-c. 340
    • Attached to the Armenian Crown.............c. 340-c. 350
    • Shavasp....................................c. 350-c. 355
    • Merujan....................................c. 355-c. 371
    • Babik......................................c. 371-c. 410
  • To Armenia.........................................384-428
    • Vache II...................................c. 410-c. 430
  • To Persia..........................................428-653
    • Mershapuh..................................c. 430-c. 460
    • Unknown rulers c. 460-c . 680
  • To the Caliphate...................................653-657
  • To the Byzantine Empire............................657-658
  • To the Caliphate...................................658-690
    • Gregory I..................................c. 680-c. 705
  • To the Byzantine Empire............................690-711
    • Vahan......................................c. 705-c. 742
  • To the Caliphate...................................711-908
    • Sahak......................................c. 742-768
    • Amazasp I.....................................768-786
    • Gagik.........................................786-798
    • Amazasp II....................................798-826
    • Ashot I.......................................826-852
    • Gurgen I......................................852-853
    • Vasak Kovaker.....................................854
    • Gurgen II Apupelch............................854-857
    • Gregory II Derenik............................857-859
    • Ashot I (restored)............................859-875
    • Gregory II Derenik (restored).................875-885
    • Ashot II (Sargis).............................885-904
      • Gagik Abu Mirwan, regent 885-897
  • Kingdom of Vaspurakan
  • Khachik-Gagik (King from 908)......................904-936/7 with...
  • Gurgen III.........................................904-916
  • Derenik-Ashot....................................936/7-953
  • Abusahl-Hamazasp...................................953-972
  • Ashot-Sahak........................................972-983
  • Gurgen-Khachik (in Adzewatsik).....................983-1003 with...
  • Sennacherib-John (in Caesaria 1022-1026)...........983-1021 d. 1026
  • To the Byzantine Empire...........................1021-1071
  • To the Seljuqs....................................1071-1207
    • Atabegs (governors) of Akhlat
    • SÖKMENID
    • Sökmen I al-Qutbi............................1100-1112
    • Ibrahim Zahir ad-Din.........................1112-1126
    • Ahmad........................................1126-1128
    • Sökmen II Nasr ad-Din........................1128-1185
    • Begtimurids When the Sökmenid line became extinct in 1185, their rule was continued by various slave commanders, sometimes collectively referred to as the Begtimurids.
    • Sayf ad-Din Begtimur.........................1185-1193
    • Badr ad-Din Aq Sunqur Hazardinari............1193-1197
    • Shuja' ad-Din Qutlugh.............................1197
    • al-Malik al-Mansur Muhammad ibn Begtimur.....1197-1207
    • 'Izz ad-Din Balaban...............................1207
  • To Aleppo.........................................1207-1242
  • To the Mongols....................................1242-1308
  • To the Ilkhanate Mongols of western Persia........1308-c. 1360
  • To the Qara Koyunlu............................c. 1360-1400
  • To Timur Shah.....................................1400-1405
  • To the Ak Koyunlu.................................1405-1508
  • To Persia.........................................1508-1516
  • To the Ottoman Empire.............................1516-1915
  • Occupied by Russia............................May-July 1915
  • To Ottoman Turkey............................July-Sept 1915
  • To Russia.........................................1915-1918
  • To Turkey.........................................1918-

 

Baluni

A principality of Armenia, in northeastern Anatolia, autonomous from around 400-800 CE

  • To Armenia.........................................384-c. 428
  • Varazchapuh........................................fl. c. 445
  • Arzak..............................................fl. c. 451 with...
  • Varazchapuh (II?)..................................fl. 451
  • Phapal.............................................fl. c. 480
  • To Persia.....................................c. 500 ?-c. 590
  • Varaz..............................................fl. c. 605
  • To Persia..........................................628-654
  • To the Caliphate...................................654-c. 860
  • To Armenia thereafter...

 

 


Chamchwilde

An autonomous Armenian principality.

  • To Armenia......................................... ? -653
    • GENTUNI
    • Tadjat........................................fl. c. 451
  • To the Caliphate...................................653-914
  • Vasak..............................................914-921 with...
  • Achot..............................................914-921
  • To Armenia, and then the Seljuks, thereafter...






Dimakseani

An Armenian principality in northeastern Anatolia, autonomous roughly 400-800 CE.

  • To Armenia.........................................384-c. 428
  • Muche..............................................fl. c. 450 with...
  • Hemaiak I..............................................c. 450 and then...
  • Thathoul...........................................fl. c. 451 with...
  • Hemaiak II.........................................fl. c. 451 and...
  • Gazrik.............................................fl. c. 451
  • ?
  • Ordi...............................................fl. c. 482
  • To Persia.....................................c. 500 ?-c. 590
  • Sargis.............................................fl. c. 598
  • To Persia..........................................628-654
  • To the Caliphate...................................654-c. 860
  • To Armenia thereafter...








Hanzith (Antzitene)  

An Armenian kingdom, briefly independent in the late tenth century.

  • To Persia..........................................428-591
  • To the Byzantine Empire............................591-607
  • To Persia..........................................607-623
  • To the Byzantine Empire............................623-653
  • To the Caliphate...................................653-657
  • To the Byzantine Empire............................657-658
  • To the Caliphate...................................658-690
  • To the Byzantine Empire............................690-711
  • To the Caliphate...................................711-885
  • To Armenia.........................................885-961
  • Habel..............................................fl. c. 970
  • Sahak..............................................fl. c. 995
  • To the Byzantine Empire........................c. 1000-1071
  • To the Seljuqs....................................1071-1242





Kamsarakan

An Armenian principality in the provinces of Chirak and Archaruniq.

  • Gavazon the Elder...............................c. 387-392
  • To Persia...........................................to 428
  • Gavazon the Younger................................fl. c. 430
  • Archavir...........................................fl. 430's
  • Thatul.............................................fl. c. 452 with...
  • Vartz..............................................fl. c. 452 and...
  • Nerseh.............................................fl. c. 452 and...
  • Achot..............................................fl. c. 452
  • Nerseh (II ?)......................................fl. c. 480 with...
  • Hrahat.............................................fl. c. 480
  • Sahat..............................................fl. c. 483
  • To Persia.......................................c. 500-591
  • Vahan..............................................fl. c. 605
  • ?
  • Nerseh.............................................fl. c. 685
  • To Armenia from 772...





Khartpert

A town in east-central Anatolia, a significant fortress in Mediaeval times.

  • To Urartu.......................................c. 900-c. 580
  • To Persia.......................................c. 580-330
  • To Armenia.........................................330-c. 260
  • Kingdom of Sophene (Tsopk)
  • Ervanduni
  • Sames I (also in Armenia and Commagene).........c. 290-c. 260
  • Arsames (also in Armenia and Commagene).........c. 260-c. 240 d. c. 228
  • Charaspes (Kharashp)............................fl. c. 235
  • Arsames (restored)..............................c. 230-228
  • Xerxes (Kserks)(also in Armenia)...................228-212
  • Abdissares......................................fl. c. 210
  • Zariadrid
  • Zariadres I.....................................c. 210- ?
  • Ervand I
  • Zariadres I (restored)........................c. 200 ?-189 >
  • Morphilig.....................................c. 190's- ?
  • Xerxes (in Arsamosata)..............................c. 170
  • Mithrobuzan I......................................159-150
  • Ervand II..........................................150- ?
  • Zariadres II.......................................fl. 134
  • Artanes.........................................c. 110-c. 95
  • Other dynasts
  • Mithrobuzan II...................................c. 95-c. 69
  • Arsaces............................................. > 70
  • To Pontus........................................c. 70-63
    • Tigranes the Young............................fl. 66
  • To Armenia......................................63 BCE-c. 50 CE
    • Sohemus........................................54-23 BCE
  • ??
  • To Armenia (Roman client, usually)...........c. 100 CE-379
  • To the Roman Empire................................379-395
  • To the Byzantine Empire............................395-1071
  • To the Seljuqs....................................1071-c. 1100
  • Artuqid
  • Nur al-Dawla Balaq.............................c. 1100-1120's
  • To Hisn Katya...................................1120's-1167
  • 'Imad ad-Din Abu Bakr.............................1167-1204
  • Nizam ad-Din Ibrahim..............................1204-1223
  • 'Izz ad-Din Ahmad Khidr...........................1223-1234
  • Nur ad-Din Artuq Shah..................................1234
  • To the Rum Seljuqs................................1234-1243
  • To the Persian Ilkhans............................1243-1335
  • Disputed zone between Baghdad, Egypt, and local Kurds
  • To the Qara Qoyunlu...............................1351-1380
  • To the Timurid Empire.............................1380-1407
  • To the Ak Qoyonlu.................................1407-1508
  • To Persia.........................................1508-1516
  • To the Ottoman Empire thereafter...


Khorkhoruni

A clan-based principality of Armenia, autonomous from roughly 400-800 CE.

  • To Armenia.........................................384-c. 428
  • Gadecho............................................fl. c. 445
  • Khoren I...........................................fl. c. 450
  • Gadich.............................................fl. c. 451
  • Khoren II..........................................fl. c. 451
  • Gardchuyl..........................................fl. c. 480
  • To Persia.....................................c. 500 ?-c. 590
  • Atat...............................................fl. c. 590
  • Thedoros...........................................fl. c. 605
  • Vohan..............................................fl. c. 640
  • To Persia.......................................c. 640-654
  • To the Caliphate...................................654-c. 860
  • To Armenia thereafter...


Khoros

A town in Commagene, central Anatolia. Briefly an Armenian Principality in the troubled 12th century.

  • To the Byzantine Empire until 1071
  • To the Seljuqs....................................1071-c. 1100
  • VASILIAN
  • Bagrat (Brother of Vasil of Raban).............c. 1100-1116
  • To Edessa thereafter...




















PONTOIRAKLIA  

A small town in northeastern Bithynia, beside the Black Sea.

  • KLEARCHID
  • Klearchos I.......................................364-352
  • Dionysios.........................................352-306 with...
  • Timotheos.........................................352-336 with...
  • Amastrin (fem.)....................................306-298 and...
  • Klearchos II......................................306-288 and...
  • Oksathris.........................................306-288
  • PTOLEMID
  • Arsinoe (fem.).....................................288-281 d. 270
  • Republic..........................................281-74
  • To Rome thereafter...




RABAN and KAISUN  

Cities in Commagene, southern Anatolia, between Marash and the Euphrates.  Briefly an Armenian Principality in the troubled 12th century.

  • To the Byzantine Empire until 1071
  • To the Seljuqs....................................1071-c. 1100
  • VASILIAN
  • Vasil the Robber (Brother of Bagrat of Khoros)....1092-1112
  • Vasil Dagha.......................................1112-1116
  • To Edessa thereafter...


SAM'AL (Yadiya)

An Aramean kingdom in the extreme north of ancient Syria, near the modern town of Zincirli Hüyük, Turkey.

  • To the Hittite Empire..........................c. 1725-1200
  • A Neo-Hittite Principality, from c. 1190 BCE
  • ??
  • Gabbar..............................................c. 920
  • ?
  • Khayan (Khaianu)...................................fl. c. 850
  • Kilammuwa.......................................c. 840-830
  • ?
  • Panammu I..........................................mid 700's
  • Panammu II........................................late 700's
  • Bar Rekkab........................................late 700's
  • To Assyria......................................c. 700-609
  • To Babylon.........................................609-539
  • To Persia..........................................539-332
  • To Macedon.........................................332-305
  • To the Kingdom of Antigonus........................305-301
  • To the Seleucid Empire.............................301-163
  • To Commagene.......................................163-87
  • To Armenia..........................................87-73
  • To Commagene (Roman client).....................73 BCE-17 CE
  • To the Roman Empire.................................17-395
  • To the Byzantine Empire............................395-625
  • To Persia..........................................625-645
  • To the Caliphate...................................645-868
  • To Egypt (Tulunid).................................868-905
  • To the Caliphate...................................905-969
  • To the Byzantine Empire............................969-1071
  • To the Seljuqs....................................1071-1098
  • To Edessa (Osroene)...............................1098-1144
  • To Mosul..........................................1144-1169
  • To Egypt..........................................1169-1517
  • To the Ottoman Empire.............................1517-1920
  • To France.........................................1920-1922
  • To Turkey.........................................1922-

 

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 

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