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Istanbul

 

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Istanbul

Timeline of Istanbul

Istanbul: 2010 European Capital of Culture (ppt 16.5 MByte)

Istanbul is the only city in the world built on two continents which Fatih Sultan Mehmet the Conqueror changed in his era. It stands on the shores of the uniquely beautiful Bosphorus (Istanbul Bogazi) where the waters of the Black Sea combine with those of The sea of Marmara and the Golden Horn. Istanbul is a province designed to be the capital and it has been the capital of three empires which used to dominate the world. Today the province houses the precious remains of these civilizations and stands with all its glamour and mysticism as a harmonious link between East and West, past and present, antique and modern.

It is one of the richest cities in historical background, as well as one of the most beautiful, enchanting and alive cities of the world. It has an atmosphere of its own with its life-style, people and numerous attractions. In Istanbul you will have to be generous with time since it has so much to show. The old palaces, the great mosques with soaring minarets, ancient churches, museums, bazaars, the Istanbul Strait and others are wonderful sites worth seeing.

Emergencies
Ambulance 112
Police 155
Fire 110
Telephone Inquiries 118
Wake-up Calls 135

The inter-city code for Istanbul is 212 for the European side and 216 for the Asian side. To call a number on the other side of the Bosphorus, first dial(0), then the appropriate code. To call overseas, first dial(00), then the country code.


Tourism Information Offices
Information offices of the Ministry of Tourism distribute brochures and maps and their friendly staff are helpful in finding accommodation and answering questions.

Ataturk International Airport: Tel: 0(212) 663 63 63
Karakoy Sea Port: Tel: 0(212) 249 57 76
Sultanahmet Square: Tel: 0(212) 518 18 02
Hilton Hotel Arcade: Tel: 0(212) 233 05 92
Galatasaray: Tel: 0(212) 243 29 28
The Turkish Touring and Automobile Club: Tel: 0(212) 282 81 40

Tourism Police Tel: 0(212) 527 45 03


Museums
Istanbul has some of the most exciting and varied museums, ranging from the magnificent Haghia Sophia to the intimate Sadberk Hanim Museum. Entrance fees, where charged, are very reasonable.

Archaelogical Museums
Adr.: Sultanahmet Tel: 0(212) 520 77 40
On the steep cobblestoned road from Gulhane Park to Topkapi Palace, the two imposing neo-classical buildings of the museums are set in a charming courtyard. They house a superb collection of Greco-Roman and Near Eastern antiquities. A new wing has an excellent exhibition on the development of civilization. The tiled Pavilion in the courtyard of the Archaeological Museum and is one of the few buildings dating back to the Ottoman conquest of the city. Open 09.30-17.00. Closed Mondays.

Asiyan Museum
Adr. : Asiyan, Bebek Tel: 0(212) 263 69 86
The house of Tevfik Fikret, a celebrated 19th century Turkish poet. Open 09.00-17.00. Closed Mondays and Thursdays.

Ataturk Museum
Adr.:Halaskargazi Avenue 250, Sisli. Tel: 0(212) 240 63 19
Some of the personal effects of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, the founder and first President of the Turkish Republic, displayed in a house where he lived briefly. Open 09.30-16.30. Closed Thursdays and Sundays.

Calligraphy Museum
Adr.: Beyazit Square, Tel: 0(212) 527 58 51
The Ottomans, always uneasy with human pictorial representation, found fuller artistic expression in calligraphy. This is the only museum of calligraphy in the world. Open 09.00-16.00. Closed Sundays and Mondays.

Carpet and Rug Museum
Adr.: Sultanahmet. Tel:0(212)518 13 30
Open 09.00-16.00. Closed Sundays and Mondays.

Divan Literature Museum
Adr.: Galip Dede Street 15, Tunel, Beyoglu. Tel:0(212)245 41 41
Also called the Galata Mevlevihane, this is where the mystic "Whirling Dervishes" perform "Sema" dances and Sufi music on the last Sunday of every month. A memorable experience not to be missed.

Haghia Sophia
Adr.:Sultanahmet. Tel:0(212)522 09 89
The Church of Holy Wisdom is undoubtedly one of the greatest buildings in the world. Built by the Byzantine Emperor Justinian circa AD 535, it was transformed into a mosque after the Ottoman conquest of the city in 1453. Now a museum, it is awesome in size, and contains beautifully preserved Byzantine mosaics. A must for any visitor to Istanbul. Open 09.30-17.00. Closed Mondays.

Rahmi M. Koc
Adr.: Sutluce. Tel:0(212) 250 89 38
A private collection of steam engines and machinery reflecting the Industrial Revolution, housed in a beautifully restored Byzantine building.

Kariye Museum (The Church of St.Saviour in Chora)
Adr.:Kariye Camii Street, Edirnekapi. Tel:0(212)631 92 41
A comparatively small Byzantine church decorated with extraordinary late 14th century frescoes and mosaics portraying the life and miracles of Christ. The most important and extensive series of Byzantine paintings in the city and among the most significant in the world. Open 09.30-16.30. Closed Tuesdays.

Marite Museum
Adr.:Besiktas. Tel: 0(212)261 00 40
Includes examples of the extraordinary caiques that used to row the Sultans to and from their palaces along the Bosphorus. Open 09.30-17.00. Closed Mondays and Tuesdays.

Military Museum
Adr.:Harbiye. Tel:0(212)223 27 20
Newly arranged displays of ancient cannons, weaponry, costumes and, best of all, some wonderful embroidered tents from ottoman campaigns. The Janissary Band occasionally performs in front of the museum. Open 09.00-17.00. Closed Mondays and Tuesdays.

Mosaic Museum
Adr.: Sultanahmet. Tel: 0(212)518 12 05
Houses the mosaics discovered in the grand Palace of Byzantium. Open 09.30-17.00. Closed Tuesdays.

Sadberk Hanim Museum
Adr.: Buyukdere Avenue 27-29, Sariyer. Tel:0(212) 242 38 13
Excellent archaeological and ethnographical collections displayed in two handsome old mansions on the Bosphorus. Open 10.30-18.00. Closed Wednesdays.

Topkapi Palace Museum
Adr.:Sultanahmet. Tel: 0(212)512 04 80
The legendary palace of the Ottoman sultans from the 15th to the 19th centuries. Low buildings set in a series of courtyards. Topkapi is quite unlike a Western palace. Be sure to see the Harem, the Treasury and the golden-roofed Baghdad Kiosk. Open 09.30-17.00. Closed Tuesdays.

The Museum of Turkish and Islamic Art
Adr.: Sultanahmet. Tel: 0(212)518 05 06
A delightful museum on the ancient Hippodrome, housed in the Ibrahim Pasha Palace, the home of Suleyman the Magnificent's Grand Vizier. Beautifully displayed Islamic objects and antique carpets. Open 10.00-17.00. Closed Mondays.


Palaces
Beylerbeyi Palace
Adr.: Beylerbeyi. Tel: 0(216)321 93 20
A restored summer palace of the late Ottoman sultans, built of white marble. Open 09.00-12.30 and 13.30-17.00. Closed Mondays and Thursdays.

Dolmabahce Palace
Adr.:Besiktas. Tel: 0(212)258 55 44
The 19th century robocco residence of the Ottoman sultans and the place where Ataturk died in 1938. Beautifully situated, with a 600 metre frontage on the Bosphorus, an impressive ballroom and ornate Victorian furniture embodying the Turkish assimilation of European culture. Visitors are admitted in groups, led by the museum's guides. Open 09.00-16.00. Closed Mondays.


Cultural Centers
The cultural centers in Istanbul often maintain lending libraries, offer language classes and sponsor concerts and films.

British Council
Adr.: Beyoglu. Tel: 0(212) 243 76 82

Casa d'Italia
Adr.: Tepebasi. Tel: 0(212) 244 98 48

French Cultural Center
Adr.: Taksim. Tel: 0(212) 243 43 87 - 245 38 35

German Cultural Center
Adr.: Galatasaray. Tel: 0(212) 251 54 04

Spanish Cultural Office
Adr.: Beyoglu. Tel: 0(212)225 21 53 .

USIS(US Information Service)
Adr.: American Consulate, Tepebasi. Tel: 0(212) 251 36 02


Libraries
American Library
Adr.: Mesrutiyet Avenue 108, Tepebasi. Tel: 0(212) 251 26 75
Open 11.00-16.00. Closed Wednesdays and Weekends.

Ataturk Library
Adr.: Mete Avenue 45, Taksim. Tel: 0(212) 249 09 45
Has a good collection of periodicals. Open 08.30-17.30.

Beyazit Library
Adr.: Imaret Street 18-20, Beyazit. Tel: 0(212) 522 37 51
Open Monday-Saturday, 08.30-21.00.

British Council Library
Adr.: Istiklal Avenue 251-253, Beyoglu.Tel: 0(212) 249 05 74
Open Monday-Friday, 09.45-17.45; Saturday, 10.45-14.15

Celik Gulersoy Library
Adr.: Sogukcesme Street, Sultanahmet. Tel: 0(212) 512 57 30.
A collection of books on Istanbul. Open Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays, 10.00-12.00 ; 13.30-16.30.

Suleymaniye Library
Adr.: Ayse Kadin Hamam Street 35, Beyazit. Tel: 0(212)520 64 60
Has the richest reference collection on Ottoman history and culture.


Medical Facilities
Istanbul has good medical facilities and plenty of excellent doctors, many of whom are trained abroad. State hospitals are better equipped and cheaper than private hospitals, which in general are less crowded and give better service. Hospitals expect you to pay immediately for services, so have some cash or a credit card available.

Private Hospitals
American Hospital
Adr.: Guzelbahce Street, Nisantasi. Tel: 0(212) 231 40 50 (Also has Emergency Service).

European Hospital
Adr.: Cahit Yalcin Street 1, Mecidiyekoy. Tel: 0(212) 288 24 51.

Florence Nightingale Hospital
Adr.: Abide Hurriyet Avenue 290, Caglayan, Sisli. Tel: 0(212) 224 49 50.

German Hospital
Adr.: Siraselviler Avenue 119, Taksim. Tel: 0(212) 293 21 50 (Also has Emergency Service).

Intermed Medical Center
Adr.: Tesvikiye Avenue, Bayar Apt. 143, Nisantasi. Tel: 0(212) 225 06 60.

International Hospital
Adr.: Yesilyurt. Tel: 0(212) 663 30 00.

Italian Hospital
Adr.: Tophane. Tel: 0(212) 249 97 51.


State Hospitals
Capa Hospital
Adr.: Millet Avenue, Capa. Tel: 0(212) 534 00 00 (Also has Emergency Service).

Cerrahpasa Hospital
Adr.: Kocamustafapasa Avenue, Cerrahpasa. Tel: 0(212) 588 48 00 (Also has Emergency Service)


Air Ambulance
Tel: 0(212) 592 88 27 , 0(212) 592 89 60
Night Ambulance Tel: 0(212) 240 39 14
International Hospital Ambulance Tel: 0(212) 663 30 00
International SOS Assistance Tel: 0(212) 230 96 38
Tesvikiye Ambulance Tel: 0(212) 231 37 71 , 0(212)247 20 06


Time Line of Byzantium (Byzantion, Nova Roma, Constantinople, Istanbul)  

It may seem peculiar to provide a separate listing for the capital of both the Byzantine and Ottoman Empires, but this city - one of the truly great cities of the world - is historically interesting in it's own right.

  • Within Thracian territory...........................to the 7th cent.
  • Colony established by Megara...........................c. 657 BCE
  • Byzas
  • To Persia..........................................512-497
  • Involved in the Ionian Revolt......................497-494
  • To Persia..........................................494-478
  • Member of the Delian League........................478-411
  • To Sparta..........................................411-407
    • Clearchus (as Spartan military gov.)..........411-409
    • Clearchus was deposed from his position and exiled from Sparta for suspected corruption. He later made a name for himself as one of the leaders of the Ten Thousand hired by Cyrus the Younger. His execution by the Persians in 400 left command in the hands of junior officers such as Xenophon, who led the remnants of the army on the fighting retreat chronicled in the Anabasis.
  • To Athens..........................................407-404
    • Clearchus (restored, as Tyrant)............c. 407-404
  • To Sparta..........................................404-378
  • Member of the 2nd Athenian League..................378-339
  • To Macedon.........................................339-306
  • Independent........................................306-73
  • To the Roman Republic...............................73-27
  • To the Roman Empire.............................27 BCE-395 CE
  • The city was razed for support of Pescennius Niger in 196 CE; later rebuilt as Augusta Antonina, but inhabitants continued to use the old name of Byzantion or Byzantium, and the new appelation faded from view.
  • The city was renamed Nova Roma in 330 CE - once again, popular use retained Byzantium until the Emperor personally intervened and required common usage to be "Constantinople", a name which eventually took hold.
  • Capital of the Byzantine Empire....................330-1453
  • By the 13th century, Muslims were referring to the place by any of several variants on the Arabic "Istinpolin", an Arab attempt at pronouncing the Greek phrase "Eis ten polin" ("in the city"). The Turkish version of this usage was Istanbul or Stamboul - despite which, the official name remained Constantinople until the Turkish Post Office enacted the change to Istanbul... in 1926.
  • Capital of the Ottoman Empire.....................1453-1923
  • To Turkey.........................................1922-
    Note as well...

    Galata The districts of Galata and Pera are located on the north shore of the estuary of the Golden Horn, with the bulk of the city of Constantinople across the water to the south. They were the foreigner's quarter for the capital from  at least the 10th century CE. In 1273, the neighbourhoods were granted as an extraterritorial enclave to Genoa, for the use of that Republic's merchants and clients, as well as other foreign residents. Genoa appointed governors (named as "Podesta", or Mayor) of the community, who administered the district autonomously. Here is a very incomplete list of these administrators...
     

    • Podesta of Galata
    • Oberto Sardena....................................1273
    • -
    • Ingueto Spinola...................................1276
    • -
    • Niccolò Doria.....................................1279
    • -
      • Guideto de Nigro, acting 1285
    • --
    • Bernabo Spinola...................................1300
    • Govino Tartaro...............................1300-1302
    • -
    • Rosso Doria.......................................1304
    • --
    • Montano de Marinis...........................1315-1316
    • --
    • Andalo de Maris...................................1335
    • -
    • Costantino Doria..................................1338
    • -
    • Benedetto d'Arco..................................1348
    • -
    • Lanzarotto de Castro..............................1356
    • Bartolomeo Rubeo..................................1357
      • Jacopo Grillo, acting 13 ?
    • Tommaso di Iglione................................1367
    • -
    • Bartolomeo Pindeberi..............................1376
    • -
    • Luciano de Nigro..................................1379
    • -
    • Lorenzo Gentile...................................1382
    • -
    • Eliano de Camilla.................................1386
    • Raffaele Doria...............................1386-1387
    • Giovanni de Mezzano...............................1387
    • -
    • Antonio Leardo....................................1390
    • Niccolò Zoagu................................1391-1392
    • Dorino Usodimare..................................1392
    • -
    • Luccino de Bonavey...........................1396-1397
    • Gentile Grimaldi..................................1397
    • -
    • Lodovico Bavoso...................................1402
    • Bartolomeo Rubeo..................................1402
      • Giannoto Lomellino, acting 1403
    • Giovanni Sauli....................................1404
    • Giovanni Botto....................................1404
    • Napoleone Salvago.................................1405
    • Giannoto Lomellino (restored).....................1405
    • Giovanni Sauli (restored).........................1405
    • -
    • Tommaso de Campofregoso (Doge of Genoa 1415-21)...1410
    • Quilico de Taddei.................................1411
    • -
    • Corrado Cigala....................................1413
    • -
    • Teodosio Doria....................................1418
    • -
    • Zacaria Spinola...................................1423
    • -
    • Imperiale Lomellino..........................1425-1426
    • Taddeo de Zoagli..................................1426
    • Giannotto Spinola.................................1427
    • -
    • Filippo de Franchi...........................1430-1431
    • Ilairo Imperiale.............................1432-1433
    • Agostino Montalolo................................1434
    • Ansaldo Doria.....................................1435
    • Stefano de Marinis................................1435
    • -
    • Giovanni di Levanto...............................1438
    • Simone Macie......................................1439
    • Niccolò Antonio Spinola......................1440-1442
    • Baruel de Grimaldi...........................1443-1444
    • Baldassarre Maruffo..........................1445-1446
    • Luccino de Facio.............................1446-1447
      • Pietro di Marco, acting 1447
    • Benedetto di Vivaldi.........................1448-1449
    • Francesco Cavallo.................................1449
    • -
    • Angelo Giovanni Lomelino.....................1451-1452
    • Francesco Giustinian.........................1452-1453
    • When the Ottoman Turks conquered the city in 1453, the extraterritorial status of Galata was abolished, but the neighbourhood was still utilized by the Turks as a foreigner's Quarter - in fact, foreign merchants and diplomats were required to reside here and not permitted to cross the Horn and enter the city unless accompanied by a Janissary. Over time, Galata itself became too crowded, and the foreigners district was expanded somewhat to include the district of Pera immediately around it. Today, the districts have been consolidated into a newer administrative division, Beyoglu, which is still regarded as a foreign quarter.

  

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 

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